Formula

C10H13(OH).

Derivation

Thymol, or thymic acid, is obtained from the herb thymus vulgaris, or common thyme, which is cultivated in this country for the same purpose as sage, lavender, etc. Thyme 36 yields a volatile oil, oleum thymi, from which thymol or thymic acid is obtained by treating the oil with an aqueous solution of potassa or soda, which separates it from a principle called thymene, with which it is mixed in the oil, and which is not affected by the alkalies. The thymate thus formed is decomposed by an acid, and the liberated thymol, or thymic acid, is purified by repeated washings, dessication and distillation. Thymol is in the form of aromatic white crystals, soluble in one thousand parts of hot water.

Medical Properties And Action

In a concentrated state, thymol has an acrid and caustic taste; but when very much diluted, the only taste experienced is that of thyme.

Thymol has acrid properties, and is similar in its action to carbolic acid. It imparts a sense of coolness to the mouth, like that of oil of peppermint, and when once melted it remains indefinitely in the liquid state.

While it is only slightly soluble in water, it is freely soluble in alcohol, and is dissolved by ether and the fixed oils. The alkalies unite with it to form soluble salts. Like creasote, it has the property of combining with animal tissues, and thus prevents putrefaction. While it has the important practical properties of carbolic acid, it is free from disagreeable odor, and it is claimed to be as efficient an antiseptic as that agent.

Therapeutic Uses

Thymol is almost exclusively employed as an external application, and is often substituted for the oil of origanum, which is obtained from the common marjoram. It is considered to be a valuable antiseptic and antifermentative agent.

Dental Uses

Thymol, when combined with glycerine, in a form known as Glycerole of Thymol, is a valuable antiseptic in the treatment of suppurating pulps of teeth, as a dressing for ulcers of the mouth, wounds, etc.; also in the treatment of teeth after the devitalization of the pulp, chronic inflammation of the pulp, and alveolar abscess, as it arrests the putrefactive process; also in stomatitis and abrasion of mucous membrane. Hartmann recommends sprinkling crystallized thymol on an exposed (not bleeding pulp), to relieve the pain of pulpitis.

Dental Formulae

Glycerole of Thymol.

Thymoli (cryst.) . . gr.xx

Glycerini,

Alcoholis . . . . aa

Aquae destillatae . . . Oj. M.

Dental Formulae 1458Dental Formulae 1459

For Alveolar Abscess, Suppurating Pulps, etc.

Alvin. Thymoli (cryst.) . . ptm.j

Iodi.......ptm.j

Potassii iodidi .... ptm.j.

Glycerini......pts. vtoxv.

Signa

Apply as in use of carbolic acid.

Signa 1460

For Stomatitis.

Alvin. Thymoli (cryst.) . . ptm.j

Glycerini......pts. 100.

Signa

To be used as a lotion and gargle.

Signa 1461

For an Antiseptic in Suppurating

Pulps, Alveolar Abscess, etc.

Thymoli (cryst.) . . ptm.l

Glycerini......pts. ij to iv.

Signa

Applied in the same manner as carbolic acid.

Signa 1462

Antiseptic and Germicide Mouth Wash.

W. D. Miller.

Thymoli......grs.iv

Acidi benzoici . . . grs.45

Eucalyptol.....

Alcoholis......

Olei gaultheriae . . . gtt.25. M.

An Antiseptic Gargle.

Thymoli.....3 1/2 grs.

Acidi benzoici . . 45 grs. Tinct. of eucalypti . 180 grs.

Aquae . . .....Oij. M.

Signa

After cleansing the teeth, use as a gargle for half a minute or a minute.

Signa 1463Signa 1464Signa 1465

Antiseptic Fluid.

Volkmann.

Thymoli .... 1 part

Alcoholis .... 10 parts

Glycerini . 20 parts

Aquae......100 parts. M.

Signa

Apply as a lotion.

Signa 1466

For Stomatitis.

David.

Thymoli......gr.vij

Boracis......gr.xv

Aqua;.......

Signa

Use as a tonic and antiseptic mouth wash, by placing a few drops in a wine glass of warm water.

Signa 1467Signa 1468

For Fetid Breath from Deposits about Tonsils and Gums.

David.

Sodii Boracis .... gr.xv

Alcoholis......

Thymoli......gr.vij

Aquae.......Oj. M.

Signa

Use as a mouth wash.

Signa 1469Signa 1470

Antiseptic Mouth Wash.

Dr. W. D. Miller.

Thymoli......gr.ij

Acidi benzoici . . . gr.xivj Hydrarg. bichlor. . . gr.ix Tinct. eucalypti . . . Olei peppermint . . gr.xj

Alcoholis......

Filter and add sufficient of the solution to a wine glass of water.

Signa

Rinse with this mixture twice sufficiently to sterilize mouth.

Signa 1471Signa 1472Signa 1473

For a Nerve Paste.

Dr. S. H. McNaughton.

Thymoli......gr.xxiv

Camphorae.....gr.xij

Acidum arseniosum . gr.iij. M.

If much pain follows the application

Signa 1474

of the above, apply at once without washing out the cavity:

Camphorae .... gr.6o Acidi tannici .... gr.30 Alcoholis......

Signa 1475Signa 1476

Glyco - Thymoline

Kress. - Contains Thymoline, Sodium, Boracic acid, Benzoin, Salicylic acid, Eucalyptol, Betula Senta, Menthol, Pini Pumillionis. It is alkaline, antiseptic deodorizing.

Thymacetin bears the same relation to thymol as phenacetine to phenol. It is a white, crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water. Excessive doses cause symptoms of intoxication. Jolly asserts that in certain forms of headache it proves equal to phenacetine. It induces sleep in cases of insomnia. The average dose is grs. viiss.