In the epidemic at Warsaw, in 1831, it was highly approved by Leo, and in later epidemics at Paris it was commended by

Trousseau, and very largely used for the premonitory diarrhoea; at the commencement of the attack only, a little opium may be added with advantage; afterward, two full doses of bismuth daily will suffice.

The reputation which has been sometimes claimed for bismuth as a valuable remedy in intermittent fever, and in nervous disorders, as epilepsy, cephalalgia, asthma, and in whooping-cough, must be traced either to its relieving gastric complications of such maladies, or to the presence of contained arsenic: it has not been sustained in recent times.

Preparations And Dose

Bismuthi oxidum: dose, 5 to 15 gr. or more. Bismuthi subnitras: dose, 5 to 20 gr. or more (see below). Trochisci bismuthi: dose, 1 to 6 lozenges (each lozenge contains 2 gr. with lime and magnesia). Liquor bismuthi et ammonioe citratis: dose, 1/2 to 1 fl. dr. and upward (contains 3 gr. of oxide in each fluid drachm). The preparation of Schacht is said to contain only 1 gr. of oxide in each drachm: dose, 1 to 4 dr. Bismuthi carbonas: dose, 5 to 20 gr. or more.

Preparations of bismuth should be taken about a quarter of an hour before, or with meals, and if a mechanical protective effect is most desired, acids are better avoided during the medication.