This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
A clear, colorless liquid, of a strong, vinegar-like odor, and a very pungent, purely acid taste. Sp. gr., not higher than 1.058, corresponding to at least 99 per cent. absolute Acetic Acid.
(Citrus Limonum). Chalk is added to the boiling juice, usually lemon juice, 2 H3C6H5O7 + 3CaCo3 = Ca3(C6H5O7), + 3Co2 + 3H2O. The precipitated Calcium Citrate is boiled with Sulphuric Acid. After filtration and evaporation, Citric Acid crystallizes out Ca3(C6H5O7)2+3H2So4=2H3C6H5O7+ 3CaSo4.
Colorless, translucent, right-rhombic prisms, having an agreeable, purely acid taste. Citric Acid, like Tartaric Acid, is often used to produce an effervescing mixture with Ammonium, Sodium or Potassium Carbonates, the two solutions being mixed immediately before taking. Carbon Dioxide which causes the effervescence is formed thus: - 3Khco3+H3C6H5O7 =K3C6H5O7+3Co2+3H2O.
Potassium tartrate, alkaline carbonates, and acetates.
Copper, lead, sulphuric and tartaric acids, and mineral matters.
Free Citric Acid is contained in Limonis Succus.
Citric Acid is used to make Bismuthi Citras, Ferri et Quininae Citras, Ferri et Quininae Citras Solubilis, Ferri et Strychninae Citras, Liquor Ferri Citratis, Liquor Magnesii Citratis, Liquor Potassii Citratis, Lithii Citras Effer-vescens, and Magnesii Citras Effervescens.
Dose, 5 to 30 gt.; .30 to 2.00 gm.
Syrup of Citric Acid. Citric Acid, 10; water, 10; Spirit of Lemon, 10; Syrup to 1000. Dose, 1 to 4 fl. dr.; 4. to 15. c.c.
8. Acidum Tartaricum. - Tartaric Acid, H2C4H4O6=149.64.
Boil Acid Potassium Tartrate with Calcium Carbonate. 2K
Hc4h4o6+CaCo3=CaC4H4O6+K2C4H4O6+H2O+Co2 Calcium Chloride is now added, which precipitates more Calcium Tartrate. K2C4H4O6+CaCl2 =CaC4H4O6+2KCl. The Calcium Tartrate is finally decomposed with Sulphuric Acid. CaC4H4O6+H2So4=H2C4H4O6+CaSo4. Then evaporate the fluid to the sp. gr. of 1.21. Separate the Calcium Sulphate crystals that form. Again evaporate, Tartaric Acid crystallizes out.
Colorless translucent monoclinic prisms longer than those of Citric Acid, or crystalline crusts, or a white powder, having a purely acid taste. Solubility. - In 0.8 part of water; in 2.5 parts of Alcohol.
Potassium salts, calcium, mercury, lead, and vegetable astringents.
Lead, oxalic acid, lime, and potassium tartrate.
Dose, 8 to 30 gr.; .50 to 2.00 gm.