The leaves of Atropa Belladonna Linne (nat. ord. Solanaceae). Synonym. - Deadly Nightshade.

Habitat

Europe and Asia Minor.

Characters

Leaves from 10 to 15 cm. long, from 5 to 10 cm. broad, broadly ovate, equilaterally narrowed into a petiole, tapering at the apex, entire on the margin, smooth, thin, the upper surface brownish-green, the lower surface grayish-green, both surfaces whitish, punctate; odor slight, bitterish, disagreeable. Resembling Belladonna leaves. - Stramonium leaves, more wrinkled; hyoscyamus leaves, hairy.

Composition

The chief constituents are - (1) Atropine (see p. 373), (2) so-called Belladonnine, a yellowish powder, is probably identical with Hyos-cyamine (see p. 384). It has been stated that atropine does not exist in Belladonna in the natural state, but that it is a conversion product of hyoscyamine, which is the natural alkaloid of Belladonna. Atropine, hyoscine, {see p. 384), daturine, (see p. 382), duboisine and scopolamine, all derived from atropaceous plants, are nearly identical, and exist as malates in the plant. Dose, 1 to 5 gr.; .06 to .30 gm.

Preparations

1. Extractum Belladonnae Foliorum Alcoholicum. - Alcoholic Extract of Belladonna Leaves. By percolation with Alcohol and water, and evaporation.

Alcoholic Extract of Belladonna Leaves is used to make Emplas-trum Belladonnae and Unguentum Belladonnae. Dose, 1/8 to 1/2 gr.; .008 to .03 gm.

2. Tinctura Belladonnae Foliorum. - Tincture of Belladonna Leaves. Belladonna Leaves, 150; Diluted Alcohol, to 1000. By maceration and percolation.

Dose, 5 to 30 m.; .30 to 2.00 c.c.

3. Unguentum Belladonnae. - Belladonna Ointment. Alcoholic Extract of Belladonna Leaves, 10; Diluted Alcohol, 5; Benzoinated Lard, 85.

4. Emplastrum Belladonnae. - Belladonna Plaster. Alcoholic Extract of Belladonna Leaves, 200; Resin Plaster, 400; Soap Plaster, 400. Melt the plaster on a water-bath; then add the extract of belladonna leaves and continue the heat, stirring constantly, until a homogeneous mass results.