This section is from the book "A Text-Book Of Materia Medica And Pharmacy For Medical Students", by Velyien Ewart Henderson. Also available from Amazon: A Text-Book of Materia Medica and Pharmacy for Medical Students.
A cachet is made of two concave plates of rice paper within which the medicament is enclosed and which is then sealed by moistening the contiguous borders of the plates with water. They offer an elegant method for completely covering nauseous and insoluble powders which are too bulky to be made into pills.
Capsules are made in hard and soft varieties. The first are hollow receptacles, covered by a lid made of the same shape and accurately closing it, and composed of gelatine, acacia and sugar The soft variety made by substituting Glycerin for the sugar, are ovoid in shape and are closed, after being filled, simply by placing a drop of the gelatine solution over the open end. The substances introduced may be bulky powders, semi-solid pill masses, and such fluids as will not dissolve the gelatine, as the Oils. Watery solutions may be administered by this means if given immediately but this method is not recommended.
A poultice is a means of applying moist heat to the surface of the body. It may be made of Linseed Meal, Bran, or any other bland substance capable of retaining heat and moisture. Sometimes they contain also more active substances such as Mustard, small quantities of Laudanum, or some of the antiseptics as Boric Acid and the Volatile Oils. In the latter case a base of Kaolin is used as in the Cataplasma Kaolini of the United States Pharmacopoeia.
These are fatty mixtures made as ointments but containing wax which gives then a firmer consistence. They are therefore valuable as local applications.
A solution of a drug or drugs dissolved in water. They are dropped into the conjunctiva.
A solution of active remedies in a mixture of Syrup and Alcohol which has been made aromatic by the addition of some of the Essential Oils. As a class they are related to both the Tinctures and the Spirits but are usually of feeble strength. Some are used simply as flavourings or as vehicles for less pleasant drugs.
A mixture of oil and water in which the oil is suspended by the use of a mucilage or in which it has been partially saponified by the action of an alkali.
A liquid preparation for injection into the rectum. These may be medicated or nutrient in character. In the first any drug capable of acting upon the mucous membrane of the rectum or which can be absorbed, and thus permitted to exercise its general effect may be used. The latter usually consist of easily absorbed food such as pre-digested milk or eggs.
Fumigation is the act of subjecting the body or any object to the action of fumes or vapors, as in the burning of sulphur for its disinfecting properties, or as in the fumigation of calomel in the treatment of Syphilis.
The purified serum obtained under the most rigid aseptic precautions from animals which have been inoculated with living bacteria or their products. The Antidiphtheritic Serum is the best known and understood.
Tablets are of three kinds (1) those made by compression called Compressed Tablets and for the making of which the drug used must be in the form of a granular powder, and which may be coated with sugar or gelatine, if desired; (2) those made by moulding without compression, for which drugs of small bulk are essential, incorporated with milk-sugar as a base, and which are not coated, called Tablet Triturates; and Hypodermic Tablet Triturates which are prepared from potent drugs under aseptic precautions with a base of Milk-sugar or better of Granulated Sodium Sulphate.
The official Chocolate tablet will be found grouped with the official preparations.
Is a plug of medicated absorbent Cotton or Lamb's Wool used in a natural or in an artificial cavity of the body for the purpose of arresting haemorrhage or for correcting the secretions.