The leaves and seeds of Datura stramonium, a weed of this country and Great Britain. The active principle is an alkaloid named daturine, which is said to be a combination of atropine and hyoscyamine.
Stramonium resembles belladonna very closely in its actions. By small doses the pulse rate is increased, arterial tension raised, and the respiration quickened. It is a mydriatic, and has some power to relieve pain. One difference between them is that stramonium is more depressing to the bronchial nerves.
The action on the intestinal muscular fibre is the same in both; small doses increasing, and large ones diminishing, peristalsis. By large doses the tension of the vessels is relaxed, the pulse still remaining frequent, and showing a tendency to intermit.
The symptoms of poisoning are much alike - dilated pupils, heightened temperature, rapid pulse, scarlet rash, restlessness, delirium, and convulsions, with the fatal termination preceded by stupor, paralysis, and asphyxia. The pulse in stramonium poisoning is much more inclined to irregularity than in atropine poisoning. The treatment is the same. Accidental cases are common among children.
Average dose, gr. 1/6-0.01 Gm.
Strength, 10%. Average dose, viii-0.5 mil.