1. Pale Bark (Cinchona Pallida, U

S., Br.) is in cylindrical pieces, called quills from being rolled, from a few inches to eighteen in length, from two lines to an inch in diameter, and from half a line to two or three lines thick. The colour of the epidermis, which is always adherent, is light-gray, brownish-gray, or grayish-fawn; of the true bark, brownish, more or less deep, and inclining to red, yellow, or orange; of the powder, pale-fawn, and sometimes dusky. The taste is moderately bitter, somewhat astringent, and not nauseous.

The commercial varieties belonging to this division are 1. Loxa barks. usually in smallish quills, derived from C. Condaminea and other species, and named from the town of Loxa, which was formerly the entrepot of the trade in them; 2. Lima or Huanuco barks, usually larger than the . preceding, derived from C. micrantha, and C. nitida, and named from the town of Huanuco in the neighbourhood of which they are gathered, or from Lima, where the trade in them centres; 3. Jaen or ash-bark, differing little in size from the Loxa Barks, named from the town of Jaen, supposed to be derived from C. ovata, and scarcely known as a distinct variety in the commerce of the United States; and 4. Huamilies bark, of larger size, in flat pieces and quills, named from the province where it is gathered, conjecturally referred to C. pubescens, and little if at all known in our markets.

2. Yellow Bark (Cinchona Flava, U

S., Br.), called in commerce Calisaya Bark, is in quills and flat pieces; the former from three inches to two feet in length, from a quarter of an inch to two inches in diameter; the latter, quite flat or slightly curved, usually thicker than the quilled, and derived from the larger stems or branches. The epidermis is in general easily Separable, and is often separated from the proper bark, especially in the flat pieces, which are almost always quite free from it, and, on their outer surface, show that it was removed without violence, from the mere looseness of adhesion. When present, it is of a brownish colour diversified with whitish lichens, is marked with longitudinal wrinkles and transverse fissures, and is tasteless and inert. Without it, the bark is from one to two lines thick, firm and compact, of a short fibrous fracture with shining points, and, when viewed along its length, exhibiting similar shining points, which are the ends of small transparent spicula. These spicula, when the bark is rubbed, separate from it, and prove highly irritant to the fingers, like cowhage. The colour of the bark is a fine brownish-yellow, usually with a tinge of red; the taste, intensely bitter without stringency or nauseousness; the powder, of a bright yellowish-cinnamon hue, often inclining to orange. The officinal yellow or Calisaya bark is the product mainly of Cinchona Calisaya, and is obtained exclusively from Bolivia.

3. Red Bark (Cinchona Rubra, U

S., Br.) is, like the preceding, in quills or flat pieces; the former, completely or partially rolled, of various lengths, sometimes exceeding eighteen inches, and from less than half an inch to more than two inches in diameter; the latter, often very large and thick. The epidermis is strongly adherent, of a reddish-brown, gray, or whitish colour, wrinkled longitudinally, and sometimes warty. Beneath the epidermis is a layer, dark-red, compact, brittle, and of feeble taste. The proper bark is woody and fibrous, of a brownish-red colour, passing from deep-red to reddish-yellow, and of a taste very bitter and somewhat astringent. The colour of the powder is a fine brownish-red. The origin of this bark was till recently unknown; at present, however, through the researches of Mr. Howard, of London, it is referred very confidently to C. succiruba of Pavon (C. ovata, var. erythroderma of Weddell), growing in the republic of Ecuador, on the western slope of Chimborazo.