I think it significant that no complications or "unfavorable symptoms" developed in these undrugged cases, although these were the rule under the drugging plan. It is true that physicians have tried this same experiment a thousand times, of treating disease with and without drugs, and in every instance the results have been in favor of the no-drugging plan; yet, as Trall said: "Prepossessed with the idea that disease would not be, could not be, or should not be cured without medicine, they have always seemed to regard the results of their experiments as entirely miraculous. They have taken the exception for the rule, and the rule for the exception."

Dr. Walter said of smallpox (the discreet variety) that it "is a violent disease, always accompanied with high fever; but if the patient is properly cared for, it is not dangerous." Of confluent smallpox, he said it "has low fever, and under drug treatment is usually fatal."

There is not the slightest room to doubt that the frightful mortality from the "Black Death," "yellow fever," "sinking typhus," "congestive chills," smallpox, typhoid fever and pneumonia was due almost wholly to the poisoning, stimulating, narcotizing, bleeding, blistering, cauterizing, leeching, mercurializing, purging and antimonial practices of the times. The more heroic the drugging in all epidemics, the higher has been the death rate and the more malignant the disease. Even measles and scarlet fever were malignant under such treatment.

Kittredge lamented that "many fevers unfortunately are not suffered to arrive at a natural termination,--but are interfered with under the plea of helping nature, and brought to a sudden and fatal crisis in a very few days from their commencement.

"If, however, they are thwarted by medicines, they will regularly put on a critical action."

It was during the war for Southern independence that typhus and typhoid were differentiated from each other. Prior to that time the two terms were usedi interchangeably and the "two diseases" were considered one. In our quotations from the past we have no means of determining what portion of the cases were typhoid and what were typhus. Trall thought that yellow fever was a variety of typhus and said that while in New York he had not had the opportunity to treat a case. He had every confidence that under the plan of care he pursued with "ship fever," "nervous typhus," "putrid typhus," etc., the worst forms of which he had treated most satisfactorily, nine out of ten cases of yellow fever would recover. "It is at least certain," he said, "that drugs do more harm than good."

His care of typhus and typhoid was simple--cold cloths to the head, heat to the feet if these were cold, sponging of the whole body with water of a comfortable temperature, moderate drinks of cold water when demanded by thirst, the wet bandage, fasting or but small amounts of thin gruel, enemas of tepid water if the bowels were sluggish. Discussing the high mortality in typhoid, Trall said that it was unnecessary and that "we do not believe these patients die of typhoid fever, but of drug medication." He was speaking of the mortality among Northern troops in the war and added that, "we notice in one of the papers that double rations of quinine and whiskey are now allowed the soldiers. Has not this extra allowance something to do with this extra mortality?"

Kittredge said: "I have known persons with well-marked typhoid fever out in a week, and I have known them for three months flat on their backs, looking up but with apparently little hope even then." Writing in the Journal, June 1851, E. B. Thomas, M.D., said: "I have seen many cases of the severe forms of typhus recover without any other form of treatment than attention to cleanliness, air and diet; and that, too, without the dreadful sequelae so justly dreaded. Again, I have seen cases of simple bilious fever treated by salivating with some mercurial preparation, and presto! the bilious was typhoid, and the patient lingered on a few days or weeks, it may be, of indescribable misery, and died." He thought that such experiences showed that drugs are not as essential as they are thought to be.

In an article on typhoid fever (The Science of Health, October 1873) C. P. Young, M.D., corresponding editor of the magazine, wrote from California that: "Absolute quiet, absence of noise and excitement must be secured. Even the clinking of latches, the creaking of a chair, the rustling of starched garments or of paper, are known to have disturbed the sensitive brain of patients and changed the disposition to rest into nervous excitement and terminated fatally." No stronger statement of the importance of sensory rest can be made.

The allopathic treatment of typhus fever was a battle-axe form of assault upon the patient. First a vomit, ipecac or antimony, the latter one of the deadliest poisons known; then a purge of calomel and opium, worked off with epsom salts and senna. If the head throbbed, much bleeding was performed. These preparative measures were followed with an "alterative course,"--calomel, opium and ipecac once in three hours, in a sudorific decoction of calomel and turpentine; half a teaspoonful of niter dulcit once in three hours and a tablespoonful of nitrate of potassa once in three hours, making some nauseous dose for the stomach once an hour.

If the patient had a slight cough, he was given squills, with a little more tartar emetic; if he had pain in the side, this was treated with a blister; if there was great headache, another blister was put on the forehead or side of the face. If the patient became delirious, the head was shaved and the scalp covered with little sores; if the feet were cold, mustard and vinegar were applied to these. If any part of the body became particularly hot, leeches were applied to this part to draw out some of the blood. This treatment was continued with occasional variations "to keep up confidence," until the patient (in most cases) died.

It must not be forgotten that typhus patients were forbidden water to drink and that fresh air was excluded from their rooms. It should also be mentioned that under such treatment a number of "accidental" or casual symptoms would frequently develop requiring special medication--such complications as diarrhea, black vomit, distention of the abdomen, hemorrhage from the liver, suppression of the urine. These developments, caused by the drugs, were met with sugar of lead, oil of turpentine, tincture of kino, arsenic and more calomel. What wonder the death rate was high!

Trall declared that typhus patients always got well within a week when cared for Hygienically, with no palliation of symptoms except that provided by water applications. Nature has no diploma from a great university and she may be excused for the fact that she never treats a sick man or a tired horse as medical men treat typhus. She rests, nourishes, purifies; she never exhausts. She seeks to husband the body's forces; she seeks to build. Even where she appears to expend the patient's energies, it is only seemingly. She makes the most of what there is to work with.