This section is from the book "Practical Dietetics With Special Reference To Diet In Disease", by William Gilman Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Practical Dietetics with Special Reference to Diet in Disease.
Scraped meat is best made from tender beefsteak, broiled for a few minutes over a brisk fire, but rare roast beef or mutton chops may be used. With a dull knife or an iron spoon the pulp is scraped out. The indigestible and less nutritious connective-tissue sheaths of the muscle fasciculi are broken and left behind, while the fibres themselves (or their myosin) are obtained in the form of a soft unirritating mass which is readily acted upon by the gastric juice. The pulp may be run through a sieve. It is then salted, and it may be made into little balls and browned just before eating. This is done by placing the balls on a hot frying pan, which is not" greasy, and turning them over so that the outside becomes well seared. They should then be set aside on a cooler part of the stove or oven and allowed to remain until the raw red colour of the interior turns slightly to drab.
Some patients prefer to eat the meat lightly cooked, spread as a sandwich between thin slices of bread and butter. This meat may be fed to infants in their second year, and the meat balls and sandwiches are invaluable in the treatment of chronic gastritis, dilatation of the stomach, typhoid convalescence, and other affections.
Mosquera's beef meal is made by digesting fresh tender lean beef with pineapple juice until the muscle fibre is almost completely converted into peptones. After digestion the preparation is desiccated. Chittenden's analysis of this meal shows it to contain 90 per cent of nutriment, 13 per cent of which is fat and 77 per cent is protein. Of the latter, almost half consists of albumoses and peptones fit for prompt absorption. The remaining portion is believed to be in a condition in which it is more digestible than plain meat. The beef meal is tasteless and odourless, which are decided advantages, as it can be flavoured according to preference. It should be salted, and it may be added to broths and soups. D. D. Stewart advises its use with equal parts of sugar and cocoa. This mixture is added to hot mlik.
Mosquera's beef jelly is made in a similar manner, but is evaporated to the consistence of a solid extract. Analysed by Ludwig, it was found to contain only 3 per cent of insoluble material, and of the soluble portion 53 per cent consists of albuminoids which were nearly all peptones. It is of pleasant taste and odour, and is highly nutritious. Dissolved in boiling water, it may be given alone with a pinch of salt or added to re-enforce any broth, gruel, consomme, beaten eggs, or milk. The beef jelly is even more digestible than the meal. It is sometimes combined with cocoa.
The beef meal and jelly are both excellent for use in gastritis, gastric catarrh, ulcer, and carcinoma, and many forms of enfeebled assimilation.
Benger's peptonised beef jelly is another good beef preparation much in vogue in England for the same purposes as Mosquera's preparations. It may be taken cold or dissolved in hot water as a concentrated beef tea, representing a large amount of meat fibre. It is a useful stimulant for the aged who have feeble digestive power. It may be given to them in teaspoonful doses.
Tropon is a condensed proteid preparation of granular consistence, said to contain 89 per cent of protein (Kleine). It is tasteless, insoluble, and may be added to milk, broth, rice, or other food, and several drachms may be given daily.
Darby's fluid meat is a moist extract which has a strong meaty taste. It can be eaten spread on thin bread and butter or cracker, or it may be dissolved in hot water.
Powdered beef is made as follows:
Chop lean beef into small pieces, dry on a water bath or in an oven with a slow fire, and powder in a coffee mill or with a machine constructed for the purpose. Do not overdry. This powder can be mixed with hot water or any form of soup, milk, chocolate, grog, or punch. In process of drying, which occupies from five to twenty-four hours, the meat loses rather more than four fifths of its weight (Huggard).
Dujardin-Beaumetz's "grog de la poudre de viande" is prepared as follows: Take two tablespoonfuls of meat powder, three dessertspoonfuls of essence or sirup of rum punch, and add milk enough to make quite fluid. In this way he claims that the equivalent of three and a half pounds of meat may be given daily.
Debove, Dujardin-Beaumetz, and Peiper strongly recommend powdered meat for forced alimentation (see Suralimentation in Phthisis) to replace feeding by the stomach tube.
Professor Finkler, of Bonn, has made a proteid food which he "claims -
"1. Has the greatest amount of albumin possible up to 90 per cent.
"2. Is digestible up to almost its entire weight.
"3. Can be made equal in amount for each day.
"4. Keeps well indefinitely in all climates.
" 5. Its flavour and taste do not interfere with that of other food.
"6. Its price is the lowest possible".
Protein........................................... 89.87 per cent.
Water............................................ 8.89 " "
Ash............................................. 1.24 " "
Fat.............................................. 0.20 " "