The effects of under-feeding may reveal themselves as a result of, on the one hand, an insufficient diet, and, on the other, an ill-balanced one. The latter is the more common cause, as owing to the lack of knowledge among people of the poorer classes as to the principles and practice of sound feeding, children are often fed on a relatively expensive and innutritious or actually injurious dietary. For these patients some reference may be here made to various cheap and good sources of food supply. The most useful foods are the following: oatmeal, meat of the cheaper varieties, herrings, skimmed milk, cheese of the cheaper sorts, lentils, peas, and margarine. Of these, oatmeal is the most useful, especially during the growing period.
Meat may be quite wholesome and nutritious and yet of an inferior quality. The flesh of cows is commonly sold at a low price. For strong soups and stews there is no advantage in choosing the best quality of meats. Foreign meats are now imported in large amount, and it is by no means easy to tell the difference between home - fed and foreign mutton. The latter is considerably cheaper than the former. The cheap parts of beef are "thick flank," which is coarse in fibre, contains no bone and little fat, and is sold at a reasonable price, and is a good, economical piece for pics, puddings, and stewing. The "thin flank" is also cheap, but is rather fatty. It is best salted and pickled, and eaten cold "Leg of meat" is also low in price, and is good for slow stewing and for soupmaking. "Brisket" is also good for stewing, and is cheap. Ox cheek is a cheap and nutritious food Allowance must always be made for the amount of bone in the meat purchased. Thus, ribs of beef are cheaper than beefsteak, but there are 2 to 3 oz. of bone in the pound. Rump-Steak, beefsteak, and loin are all solid, without any bone One shilling will purchase 2 lbs. of loin, I lb. of beefsteak, or 12 07.. rump-steak. Of mutton, the leg is the most economical joint; though higher in price than shoulder, it contains less bone and fat, and cuts up better. Sheep's head makes excellent broth, and also supplies a fair amount of good meat. Haggis made from "pluck" is one of the cheapest forms of nourishment. Pig yields a cheap food in the form of pig's "cheek" and pig's "trotters"; other parts are rather expensive. Sheep's trotters and pig's trotters yield a gelatine of considerable value as a food, because of its protein-sparing properties.
Of fish, herring - e.g., kippers, bloaters, red herrings - are the cheapest fish. Sprats, eels, mackerel, pilchards, ling, and John Dory are other varieties of cheap nourishing foods.
Of vegetables, pulses are the most economical and nourishing. Peas, beans, and lentils are to be commended. Of fruits, mention may be made of rhubarb, apples, oranges, and bananas. An intelligent housewife selects her vegetables and fruits from those which are at the time plentiful and cheap.
Porridge and skimmed milk.
To be selected from the following: - Soup made from -
(1) Peas, beans, or lentils.
(3) Fish soup made from cod's head or "trimmings." Meat courses selected from -
(a) Liver, tripe, neck of foreign mutton, mince (made up with breadcrumbs and potatoes).
(b) Fish, either haddock fried in batter, herrings with potatoes, ling or John Dory fried in batter or made into fish potato pie. Bread with skimmed milk, margarine or dripping toast, and cheap skimmed milk varieties of cheese. Supper, selected from -
Bread and butter, cocoa, cheese as above, fried potatoes, or porridge and skimmed milk.
This is a common cause of under-feeding. As examples of diseased conditions arising from this cause, we find anemia induced by a diet consisting largely of tea and bread, to the exclusion of good animal foods; scurvy from a dietary deficient in fresh fruit or vegetables; and rickets from deficiency of fat, proteins, and salts, with excess of carbohydrates. Under-feeding lowers the resistance of the tissues to disease generally. More particularly, a deficiency of animal protein food - meat, eggs, and pure milk - is a predisposing cause to tuberculosis.