Cruciferae, Mustard Family.

Water-cress; Horseradish; Cabbage tribe; Turnip; Rutabaga; Mustard, black and white; Peppergrass; Radish.

Capparidaceae, Caper Family. Capers.

Malvaceae, Mallow Family. Okra.

Geraniaceae, Geranium Family. Wood Sorrel, Nasturtium.

Leguminosae, Pulse Family.

Soy Bean; Peanut; Kidney Bean; String Bean; Lima Bean; Black Bean; Pea; Chick Pea; Lentil; St. John's Bread.

Cucurbitaceae, Gourd Family.

Pumpkin; Squash, summer and winter; Cucumber; Vegetable Marrow; Christophines.

Umbelliferae, Parsley Family.

This family contains many of the aromatic seeds. Carrot; Coriander; Sweet Cicely; Fennel; Celery; Celeriac; Caraway; Parsley; Angelica; Parsnip.

Valerianaceae, Valerian Family. Corn Salad.

Compositae, Composite Family.

Jerusalem Artichoke; Globe Artichoke; Cardoon; Chicory; Endive; Salsify; Dandelion; Lettuce; Romaine.

Convolvulaceae, Convolvulus Family. Sweet Potato.

Solanaceae, Nightshade Family.

Tomato; White Potato; Egg Plant; Chili Peppers, in all its varieties.

Labiatae, Mint Family.

The leaves of the plants of this family are aromatic. Sweet Basil; Mint; Savory; Marjoram; Thyme; Sage; Stachys.

Chenopodiaceae:, Goosefoot Family. Spinach; Beet.

Phytolaccaceae, Poke-weed Family. Poke or Scoke.

Polygonaceae, Buckwheat Family. Dock; Sorrel; Buckwheat.

Lauraceae, Laurel Family. (This is not the family to which the mountain and sheep laurel belong.) Sassafras; Bay-leaves.


Scitamineae, Banana Family.

Ginger; Arrowroot; Tous-les-mois; Banana,

Dioscoreaceae, Yam Family. Yam.

Liliaceae, Lily Family.

Asparagus; Onion; Leek; Garlic; Scullion; Chives; Shallots.

Palmaceae, Palm Family.

Sago (Dates and Cocoanuts).

Gramineae, Grass Family.

Rice; Oats; Wheat; Rye; Barley; Maize; Sorghum; Durra or Kaffir Corn; Millet.

Some of the seaweeds have proved valuable in periods of scarcity, while the Irish moss and gelose are used at all times.

Many lichens have been used as dyes, but very few as food. Arctic explorers have sometimes been forced to eat various plants of this group. The best known lichen, however, is the Iceland moss.

Plants Used As Flavorings To Other Plants

Under this heading we have

Parsley (Carum petroselinum, Bentham,)

Chervil (Myrrhis odorata, Linn.,)

Tarragon (Artemisia Dracunculus)

Angelica (Archangelica officinalis, Linn.,)

Capers (Capparis spinosa)

Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus, Linn.,)

Garlic (Allium sativum)

Shallots (Allium Ascalonicum, Linn.,)

Chives (Allium Schaenoprasum, Linn )

Bay Leaves (Laurus nobilis, Linn.,)

Gumbo File Powder (Sassafras offiicinale, Nees)

Sweet Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Linn.,)

Summer Savory (Satureia hortensis, Linn)

Sage (Salvia officinalis, Linn.,)

Sweet Basil (Ocimum Basilicum)

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris, or Thymus Serpyllum)

Mint; Spearmint (Mentha viridis, Linn )

Dill (Peucedanum graveolens)

Anise (Pimpinella anisum)

Caraway (Carum Carui, Linn.,)

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum, Linn.,)

Cumin-seeds (Cuminum cyminum)

Fennel (Faeniculum officinale, Allioni)

While these plants are never used alone, and have little or no food value, they contain pungent or volatile oils valuable in intensifying the flavor of other vegetables. They must be used in small quantities, and never for the sick without a physician's orders.

Tarragon, steeped in a small quantity of vinegar, filtered or strained, is used as a flavoring for salad dressings.

Capers are used as a flavoring and garnish to chicken salad, and in a sauce for boiled mutton.

There is but one of these materials that needs a special mention, and that is the gumbo file powder. This is made from the very young leaves of the sassafras tree (Sassafras officinale, Nees), picked during the middle of the day, dried quickly in the sun, rubbed in the hands until they are rather fine, and sifted through a fine sieve. Use as thickening to chicken or vegetable broth, or in gumbo soup. Allow a half teaspoonful to each pint of soup. The Creoles add gumbo file powder to chicken, oyster and crab soup.