The calculi of the prostate gland also consist, according to Dr. Woolaston, of phosphorated lime.

Calculi of the salivary glands, calculous incrustations on the teeth, ossifications in the larger vessels of the heart, between the muscles, in the corpora cavernosa penis, and in the pancreas, resemble the earth of bones. Those of the bronchial glands we have found to be similar: those from the uterus have not been examined. See Heister's Surgery, Warner's Cases in Surgery, Gooch's Treatise on Wounds, and the Med. Mus. vol. i. and ii. Bell's Surgery, vol. ii. 9, etc. Baillie's Morbid Anatomy. Woolaston's Phil. Trans. 1797. Pearson's Phil. Trans. 1798. Annales de Chimie, xvi. 63. xxiii. 123. xxviii. 52. xxx. 57. xxxii. 185, 213.

Calculus biliaris, (from bilis, bile). Gall stone.

Though we have spoken of these stones at sufficient length, yet some facts, chiefly of a chemical nature, remain. Biliary calculi are divided by Walker into the striated, lamellated, and cortical; and by Vicq. dazyr into those which consist of a yellowish bilious matter, whether filamentous or not; those composed of crystalline matter of different degrees of lustre, with or without a covering, and into calculi consisting of both substances. Externally they are usually laminated; internally, radiated: the greater number have no taste, but many are intensely bitter. From their chemical properties they are divided into two species; those consisting of a shining, foliated, crystalline substance, analogous to spermaceti, and those which resemble inspissated bile, in which the former seems to have crystallized. In every instance, the crystalline matter resembled spermaceti; though, in a calculus analyzed by Gren, it seemed to approach more nearly to wax. The hepatic calculi have not been examined.

They often lie quiet in the gall bladder; and, until dissection after death, are not known to exist: but, when they are prevented from passing through the gall ducts, they generally obstruct the passage of the bile into the intestines, and produce many other distressing symptoms.

The diagnostics of this disorder are often obscure and uncertain; for other causes produce similar symptoms. An instance occurs in Mr. White's Treatise on the Disorders of the Bile: the usual symptoms, however, are, a loss of appetite, a sense of fulness in the stomach, sickness, vomiting, languor, inactivity, sleeplessness. and, if the obstruction continue a few days wasting of the flesh; a yellowness of the eyes, skin, and urine; whitish stools; a pain at the pit of the stomach, without any change in the pulse. The last symptom is considered as peculiarly distinguishing this affection. This pain, which in some is extremely acute, in others light, is felt about the region of the liver, and its particular seat is in the gall duct, just where it enters the duodenum. In some patients the yellowness does not appear; in others it is observed for several months. It is a disease peculiarly painful, and as frequent as air-disorder of the liver; it receives much relief from art. and is not immediately dangerous.

In the cure, pain is the first object of attention; and. when it is considerable, opium is the only resource: a dose may be taken as soon as the patient perceives its approach, and repeated every hour or two until a remission is procured. The vomiting, which generally attends, is nature's effort to dislodge the gall stones; and, whether it is present or absent, as soon as the pain begins to abate, an emetic should be administered, and repeated if required. After its operation an opiate may be given. Purging medicines are equally neces-sary; and of these, such as act with the most ease may be most safely continued, as manna, castor oil, the waters of purging springs, and neutral salts, art-preferable. These may be repeated every other day for several months, without palling the appetite, lessening the strength. A little rhubarb may also be taken occasionally. See London Med. Transactions, ii; 123. Memoirs of the Med. Society of London, i 373.

The juice of grass and the decoction of its roots in the spring, are supposed, from a fanciful analogy, to be powerful solvents. Mr. White says that he hath given alcohol saturated with the oil of turpentine, and advantageous effects have been soon manifested.

See Dr. Coe on Bilious Diseases. Gooch's Cases and Remarks, p. 163 - 169. Lond. Med. Trans. vol. ii. p. 105, etc. Mr. White's Treatise on the Diseases of the Bile. Lewis's Translation of Hoffman's Practice of Medicine. Annales de Chimie, v. 186.

Calculus humanus. See Bezoar microcosmi-cum.