It is singular, however, that it did not occur to those who animadverted on or opposed the Cullenian system, that it was by no means wholly new or fanciful. The connection of the state of the extreme vessels with the general system had been pointed out, in many places, by the industrious and attentive Hoffman; and the general regulations of the living principle, by Stahl. We have been often tempted to accuse Dr. Cullen of dis-ingenuity in concealing the labours of Stahl. He slightly mentions one essay on "The Tertian, as the general Type of Fever,"and his "Theoria Medica Vera:" chiefly with a view of combating his principle, that the mind provides for those exigencies by a knowledge of the change to be produced, and that its superintending power adapts the means to the end; but the commentaries on different parts of the latter, where the system is more fully developed and explained with the most logical precision, we mean in the inaugural dissertations published at Halle, during his presidentship, our professor never mentions. The dissertation, "De Motu Tonico," and "AEstus Maris Microcosmici," contain the principles of the Cullenian doctrine, though in no very inviting form or language.

We might now dismiss the subject, referring, for more particular information, to the different articles as they occur; but the admirers of Dr. Cullen will probably expect a somewhat more particular account of his doctrines. We shall, therefore, pursue them a little more minutely.

He considers the primordial stamina of the human body as fibrous. Such is the structure of the brain, the nerves, the muscles, and the various membranes; but these fibres are not, as Boerhaave supposed, connected by a cementing matter, but a peculiar solid, consisting of parts united by chemical attraction. The growth of the body he supposes to be owing to the extension of the arteries and the nutritious fluid prepared by the brain, and deposited in the interstices of the fibres by the nerves. This extension of the arteries is effected by the force of the heat; and on the proportion of this force to the resistance, many of the changes in the animal economy, both in its advancing and decaying state, are, he thinks, owing.

The muscular fibres he styles "the moving extremities of the nerves,"and supposes them to be a continuation of the extremities of nerves. He denies that the muscles have a vis insita, independent of the nervous power, as Haller supposed; and thinks that the contraction of muscular fibres is only an increase of the common power of cohesion, by an accumulation of the nervous influence.

This influence he supposes not to be secreted by the brain from the blood; but to be generally inherent in the nerve, and, indeed, to be a part of it. Sleep and watching are not, therefore, owing to the exhaustion of the nervous influence or its accumulation, but to its state of torpor or excitement.

The simple solids he supposes, as already mentioned, to be a chemical mixture, consisting of fibres, with a more simple animal substance interposed. They differ in strength, cohesion, etc.; but in this respect they follow the state of the constitution, or rather of the nervous system. From this all their deviations are derived; and to this all our views for the restoration of their healthy-state must be directed. The fluids are formed also by the constitution. The superintending power regulates their deviations from their proper state of mixture, by increasing the different secretions adapted to carry off particular portions when in excess, or checking these discharges when the quantity of the whole mass or any of its component parts is deficient.

As a machine, the whole is regulated by the state of the brain, of the stomach, and of the extreme vessels. These mutually influence each other; and when one is disordered, the others suffer. When the spasmus pe-riphericus of Hoffman exists, the stomach sympathises, and vomiting comes on, which is often not removed till sweat breaks. When the head is loaded, vomiting equally occurs; and an affection of the stomach will produce shivering, headach, palpitation of the heart, and almost every other complaint. The ligaments, particularly of the extremities, have, in our author's opinion, a striking.connection with the slate of the stomach; but this rests on some facts which are doubtful, or which may be otherwise explained.

From these principles all the leading traits of his system emanate. To pursue them in particular detail, or distinct complaints, is not proper in this place: they will frequently occur in almost every sheet of this work. In our opinion, it is a most astonishing effort of genius and ingenuity: when the period of its publication is considered, it is still more wonderful. The whole is combined with so much judgment, that it fills the mind as one whole: nothing is wanting; nothing redundant. The chain is complete; and it is a chain of facts supported by observation. To suppose it faultless would be ridiculous; yet those who oppose it, have borrowed from their master's powers the facts and arguments adduced against it. Dr. Cullen succeeded well; but his greatest success was what he professed to aim at, the improvement of his pupilsjudgment; the raising a host of critics on himself.

It will have been obvious, from the preceding pages, that we have in general followed Dr. Cullen; or rather, that we have given a temperate view of our professor's opinions, adding to, modifying, and sometimes differing from, them. One very important addition we have professed to take from Dr. Brown, viz. accumulated and exhausted irritability; and one very material alteration we have made, in considering convulsions not as increased but irregular action. "As we are now at thrift"we may add, that we follow no man's ipse dixit. No opinion shall be hazarded in this work that has not been fully considered, brought to the test of experience, and examined in all its bearings and connections. If wanting, when "weighed in the balance,"it shall be stated as uncertain, doubtful, or hazardous. At least, we will not knowingly mislead.

If we follow Dr. Cullen's system in its practical deductions, we shall not speak of it with equal commendation. As a practitioner, he was often feeble and in-decisive; nor do his doctrines always lead to the most active and successful measures. The error is, however, chiefly in the application: we shall show that it is not in the principle. A striking instance of this error we shall have occasion to notice in the treatment of fevers.

With a view to relax the spasm, the use of the antimo-nials was commenced early, and continued with somewhat too great pertinacity: but, if the spasm arose from debility, if the reaction was unable to conquer it, still less would a debilitating power succeed; and, in reality, while the employment of antimonials was eminently useful in the early stages, when the reaction was strong, and the general principle contributed to give a fatal blow to the doctrine of concoction, its promiscuous use-been highly injurious. We have now employed Cul-lenian language, not our own.

We have not mentioned our author's nosology, because it was not, in reality, a part of his system. [1 must rest on other grounds, and be the subject of a future article. It is only mentioned at present to point out a most important part of Dr. Cullen's instructions to his pupils, viz. the necessity of an accurate diagnosis. This he thought was best ascertained by nosological arrangement; and he added, what we believe to be strictly true, that no nosological difficulty can occur, which does not imply the defect of accurate observa-tion, or lead to a more attentive examination of the symptoms of a disease. Culmen, Culmus, (from Cullentan System 2503 a reed). The stalk or blade of corn or grass. Culminiferous plants have a smooth jointed stalk, are usually hollow, and at each joint wrapped round with single, narrow, sharp pointed leaves: their seeds are in chaffy husks, as wheat and barley.

In grasses and corn, the culm or stalk corresponds to the caudex or trunk of trees; so that it generally denotes that part between the root and the ear or panicle. The stubble of corn remaining after the ears are cut off, is strictly the culmen.