(Chinese). Ginseng, aralia humilis, nisi,sisarummontanum Cor sense,aureliana Canadensis Iroquaeis, plantula Marilandica, panax quinquefolium Lin.sp. Pl. 1512.

Ginseng is the root of a small plant growing in China, Turkey, and in some parts of North America, particularly in Canada and Pennsylvania. It is two or three inches long, taper, about the thickness of a little finger, often forked at the bottom; elegantly striated with circular wrinkles; of a brownish yellow colour on the outside, and whitish, or of a pale yellow, within; with one or more little knots on the top, the remains of the stalks of the preceding years, and the marks of the age of the root. The Chinese roots are somewhat paler than those from America, and supposed to be superior as tonics.

Ninzin has been supposed synonymous with ginseng; but it is a root of a different species, similar to, though weaker than that of ginseng: the ninzin root is larger, lighter, and less firm; whitish on the surface, yellow within, with a slight aromatic smell, an acrid bitterish taste, and is a species of sium; slum ninsi Lin. Sp. Pl. 361.

The Chinese esteem this root as a general restorative and powerful aphrodisiac; but these qualities it possesses in a very inconsiderable degree. (See Cullen's Materia Medica.) Indeed, though the Chinese give such extravagant accounts of its many virtues, from its sensible qualities we conclude it has very little pc as a medicine. To the taste it is mucilaginous, and sweet like liquorice, yet accompanied with a degree of bitterness, a slight aroma, and little or no smell: the saccharine matter and the aroma of these roots are preserved in the watery as well as in the spirituous extract; the latter is pleasantly warm.

A drachm of the ginseng root may be sliced and boiled in a quarter of a-pint of water to about two ounces, and may be drunk as soon as it is cool: the dose must be repeated morning and evening; but the root may al-ways be twice boiled. M. Reneaum says that the hepatica nobilis Tragi is endued with the principal virtues of the ginseng. See Raii Historia Plantarum. Kempfer's Amoenitates. James's Medical Dictionary. Lewis's Materia Medica. London Medical Transactions, vol. iii. p. 34.