The last five years of the eighteenth, and the first decade of the nineteenth, century marked the rise and wonderful success of Napoleon I., who for twenty years devastated and terrorized Europe as no other military despot has ever done. The combined forces of Europe, in 1815, accomplished his final overthrow at Waterloo, and the same year a reorganization of Continental Europe was effected by the Treaty of Vienna.

In 1821 the Greeks revolted against the Turks, under whose dominion they had been for more than three centuries. For six years the war continued, until, finally, the Turks were defeated at Navarino in 1827, and by interference of the outside powers Turkey was compelled to grant them independence, and Otho of Bavaria became the first king of modern Greece in 1832. He occupied the throne (31 years) until 1863, when he was dethroned by his subjects, and their present king, Prince George, son of King Christian of Denmark and brother of Queen Alexandra of England, was placed upon the throne. In 1897 Greece again went to war with Turkey for the independence of Crete, but was defeated. However, the powers interfered to save her, and Turkey was further required to grant greater freedom to Crete, the son of the Greek king being made its governor.

In 1831 the new kingdom of Belgium was formed from the lower part of the Netherlands, but an eight-years' war with Holland was necessary to confirm her rights and secure the recognition of the European. powers.

"The Year of Revolutions," 1848, witnessed the uprising of popular democratic ideas, which began in France and spread to many. nations in Europe, resulting in the fall of several thrones. In 1852 the Second French Empire was established by Napoleon III. In 1854-5 the Crimean War occurred, in which England, France, and Turkey fought against Russia. The battles of Alma, Balaklava and Inkerman, during this war, have added undying celebrity to the plains and hillsides of the Crimean Peninsula. Turkey was saved from Russian power by this war.

In 1859 the Franco-Austrian War resulted in the cession of Lombardy to Italy; 1862 saw the spoliation of Denmark by Austria and Prussia. The " Three Weeks' War" of 1866 aided in the autonomy of Italy as a nation, absorbed into Prussia several of the minor German states, and excluded Austria from the position of leading German power. 774

In 1870 Napoleon III. made war on Prussia ostensibly to avenge a pretended insult from the Prussian monarch. The injustice of Napoleon's cause and Bismarck's shrewdness united all the German states except Austria in a war against a common enemy. In less than a year the French were beaten. Napoleon was captured and compelled to abdicate the throne. Alsace and Lorraine were taken from France and added to Germany. All Germany (except Austria) united to form the German Empire, with King William of Prussia as the first emperor. France became a republic and has since so remained.

Russia declared war against Turkey in 1877, which ended in the total defeat of the latter in 1878,' with a partial dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. Servia, Roumania, and Montenegro were recognized as independent; East Roumelia was formed south of the Balkans ; Bosnia and Herzegovina were occupied by Austria; Cyprus by Great Britain ; Bessarabia and other territory in Asia was ceded to Russia, and Bulgaria was granted an autonomic administration. Thus shorn of so large an outlying territory, Turkey became the "Sick Man of Europe." The Armenian massacres of 1896 incensed the Christian world anew against her. The Greek war already referred to in 1897, taking Crete from under her thumb, left her yet weaker. Nothing but the European powers' jealousy of one another keeps the once powerful, but now effete, Ottoman Empire alive.

During the last quarter of the nineteenth century Europe has been comparatively at peace within her own borders. The boundary lines are well settled, and all the powers have looked abroad for their conquests and extensions of dominion. The end of the Boer war of 1901 makes England pre-eminent in Africa. Spain, stripped of well nigh all her foreign possessions by the war of 1898 with America, has retired within her own narrow borders and is no longer reckoned a factor among the world powers.

The Chinese invasion by England, Russia, Germany, France, Italy and America in 1900, to protect foreign subjects from Chinese persecution, has flung wide the closed door of the East, and left no longer a doubt that Western civilization is to overrun the Orient, and that the theatre of the world's great historic play for the next half century must be rendered, not in Europe, but upon the stage of the far East, the birthplace of the earliest civilization.