BEFORE a designer can satisfactorily plan the plumbing for a building, he must know fully how plumbing work should be done, and be perfectly familiar with the principals and practice of the calling. It stands to reason that a success cannot be made of the effort, if he does not know how or where the pipes should be run, cannot figure or otherwise determine their several capacities, and does not understand the principles of operation of the numerous devices used in plumbing. He should keep posted on new improvements as they are placed on the market, and be able to judge accurately of their value from the principles on which they are constructed and the function they are to fulfill; and, in the matter of fixtures, he should be informed, so that he can select the right kind for the several different classes of buildings.
The idea of plumbing plans and details, is to work out everything in the office, and put it on paper in such a clear and simple manner that an ordinary workman can follow it without effort, yet at the same time so fully, that nothing will be omitted or overlooked by the estimator and contractor.
The runs of all pipes both large and small, should be fully laid out, before work is commenced on a building, so that as the carpenters proceed with the framing of a building, they can frame around where pipes will be located, and leave spaces for the lead roughing in the toilet and bath rooms, following details furnished by the architect. This is a matter entirely overlooked in frame buildings, with the result that in every bathroom, cutting and framing must be done to accommodate the soil and waste pipes, after the building is practically finished. A little care and forethought on the part of the designer in furnishing details of the framing around the bathrooms for the carpenter would obviate all after hacking and hewing, and be not only more economical but likewise more satisfactory all around.
The importance of making provision for the plumbing pipes become almost a necessity in reinforced concrete buildings, for, if openings are not left where pipes have to pass from floor to floor, the cutting necessitated will not only increase the cost of running the stacks from 50% to 75% but is liable furthermore to weaken the structure by cutting through some of the reinforcing rods. The aim of the designer therefore should be to study out before hand, just where each run and stack of pipe will be located, then furnish details for the carpenter or mason as the case might be, to guide him in making provision for the pipes.
Before the location of stacks can be accurately determined, it will be found necessary to lay out in the several bathrooms just where each fixture will be placed. Ordinarily this is done by drawing in with pencil a tentative arrangement, then if not satisfactory, rearranging them and trying again, keeping at that practice until a satisfactory arrangement is secured. A quicker and much easier method is to make a set of fixture symbols, drawn to the scale of the plan, color them with india ink, and with these little movable pieces quickly shift them from place to place until the right arrangement is found, then draw in permanently on the plans. Little templets of this kind, for the three usual fixtures in a bathroom, water closet, bath tub, and lavatory, can easily be made in 1-inch and 1/8-inch scales, and be kept handy for ready use at anytime.
The symbols given in a preceeding chapter are intended principally for scales of 1/4-inch or larger. The general outline of the fixtures can be used for drawings to scale as low as 1/8-inch per foot, but much of the detail will have to be omitted in such cases. In order that the difference may be seen comparatively, two plans of a bathroom are here reproduced, one, Fig. 78, being drawn to 1/4-inch scale, and the other, Fig. 79, drawn to 1/8-inch scale. It will be observed that the only difference between the symbols used in the two drawings lies in the fact that at the smaller scale the trimmings have been omitted from the bath tub and lavatory.
Fig 78 1/4-Scale Drawing of Bathroom
Fig. 79 1/8-Scale Drawing of Bathroom
For estimating, the contractor will require a full and complete set of drawings made to scale. For use as a guide installing the work however, all that is necessary is something to show the layout and runs of the various stacks and branches, and the location and arrangement of various fixtures. This information of course can be had from the plans, but large scale drawings are inconvenient to handle in a building, and soon become worn and the lines obliterated by use. A better practice is to provide the foreman with photographic prints of the tracings, which need not be larger than 8x10 inches for a building of the largest size. These prints can be fastened to a board, or easily rolled up and carried in the pocket, while the cost of making them is less than that for full size blue prints.