In the foregoing pages reference has been made to several of the features shown in Plate 51. This illustration gives a general system of supply, showing several details of value.
Plate LI. Water Supply For Country House-Double-Acting Ram - Cistern Filters - Hot-Water Supply
Water Supply for
The double-acting ram is of very great value under certain circumstances ; for instance, when a limited supply of pure spring water is obtainable, but in too small quantity to operate the ram continuously. Under these conditions, any other water supply of inferior quality from a pond, lake, or stream properly located may be employed to operate the ram, its arrangement and connections being • such that nothing but the pure water supply will be pumped. This machine is of comparatively recent origin and is very effective
One of the chief features of Plate 51 is the work in connection with the cistern.
The collection and storage of rain water is very necessary as a means of providing a supply of soft water when the natural water supply is hard. Under such conditions it is sometimes necessary to use rain water for drinking purposes.
The storage of drinking water in tanks and cisterns is not advisable if better methods can be employed, but is sometimes necessary, and when this is the case too much attention cannot be given to providing the best possible conditions. To place the water coming from the roof in proper condition for drinking purposes it is necessary to filter it.
If rain water could be stored without taking up any impurities, it would be the purest water supply that could be obtained, but in falling upon the roof it not only carries with it such things as twigs, pieces of slate, etc., but also things which are much worse, such as decaying vegetable matter, bird manure, and dust and dirt which contain all kinds of impurities.
These things not only make the water impure, but discolor it to some extent, and cause it to give out foul odors.
It will thus be seen that before being pumped from the cistern into the house tank the water should be purified, and filtration is the easiest and most practicable way of performing the work. There are many forms of cistern filters.
A simple form of filter may be built in the following manner. Only a small part of the cistern is needed for the filter chamber, which should be of brick, extending from the wall about two feet into the cistern. It is practically a brick box built up from the bottom of the cistern about two or three feet, the top of the box also being bricked over. The bottom of this brick box should have a thick covering of gravel or broken stone and charcoal. Narrow openings should be provided at the bottom of the brick box at different points around it in order to allow the water of the cistern to pass • through into the filter, and at these openings coarse wire cloth should be used to prevent the gravel and charcoal from working out. The top surface of the filtering material should also be protected in the same manner.
The brick box should not be covered with any coating to make it water-tight.
The suction pipe of the pump should end inside the filter box, resting firmly above the filtering material. It is also well to provide an air pipe of 1/2 - or 3/4 - in pipe, connecting into the filtering chamber and ending above the surface of the water in the cistern. The cistern water will filter through the filtering material and also through the bricks of the filter chamber, and when pumped from the latter to the house tank will be entirely suitable for drinking purposes. Porous stone and brick, by the way, make excellent filtering materials, as they are filled with minute air spaces, which is a necessary feature in any material that is to be used for filtering purposes. After having been in use for two or three years the filter chamber should be torn out, the filtering material renewed, and the bricks thoroughly cleaned before being used again, or new ones used, which would be better, as the pores of the bricks will have become more or less filled in this length of time. If the old bricks are to be used again, it will be a good plan to bake them, thus destroying any impurities that may exist in them.
While the filtering arrangement just described is efficient and satisfactory, it is an excellent idea in such work as this to prevent as far as possible the entrance of impurities into the cistern in the first place, and to filter the water also in some manner similar to the method described.
A sort of catch basin, such as shown in Plate 51, three or four feet in each of its three dimensions, or three or four feet in diameter and of about the same depth, if built in cylindrical form, may be used to hold back from the cistern much of the coarser substances, and thus prevent the cistern filter from becoming so quickly clogged.
This catch basin may be built against the cistern or separate from it, its top reaching to the surface of the ground and provided with a removable cover. A cast-iron grating should cover the full area of the catch basin, and be set securely a few inches from the bottom of it. Above the grating, and reaching nearly to the top of the catch basin, gravel or broken stone should be filled in, and from the upper part of this material an outlet of the same size as the conductor pipe is carried into the cistern. The conductor pipe from the roof is carried into the catch basin to a point below the iron grating. Therefore, to reach the cistern, all rain water must pass through the broken stone or gravel, which is easily renewed when necessary. It should be borne in mind that this catch basin should be used only as an aid to the cistern filter.
Another very good and simple form of cistern filter can be constructed as shown in Plate 51.
In the center of the cistern several lengths of large-size porous tile should be securely joined together, the bottom being cemented to the bottom of the cistern. The tile should be completely filled with broken stone and charcoal, and the suction pipe of the pump connected to the top. At the bottom of the tile, holes should be drilled through it in sufficient number to allow water to pass into the filtering material. The cistern water also filters through the tile. The connection of the suction pipe into the filter should be so made that it cannot break the tiling or the cement joints, and thus destroy its effectiveness by allowing unfiltered water to be pumped.
If desirable, this same filter may be laid on the bottom of the cistern, with the filtering holes in the end opposite the suction-pipe connection.
In Plate 51 the filtered cistern water is pumped into the attic storage tank, and an overflow from the latter run to the cistern. From the cistern an overflow is run to the surface of the ground.
It is necessary always to provide an unfailing supply of water, and the use of the double-acting ram, together with the use of rain water, present means of doing this. If it is desired to use cistern water at the pump, a faucet devised for this purpose may be attached to the pump at the bottom of the air chamber.
In the use of tanks for rain-water storage, it is better to use tin-lined sheet copper for the lining than sheet lead, as rain water will often attack lead. It is a fact that a pure water will more often attack metals than a water containing a large amount of impurities.