Fig. 69 has a moulded collar-beam, with large arch-braces fixed to the tenons of the hammer-beams, in the pendentive manner. The pendentive ornaments have been cut away to make room for the later flooring. As pointed out earlier in this chapter, this pendentive hammer-beam form of roof is not sound construction, as the strain is carried on the tenon only, instead of the hammer-beam itself.

Fig. 70 shows the chancel roof of Ufford Church, in Suffolk, which introduces the pendentive hammer-post type. This is a framed collar-truss roof. The crenellated collars have a very slight camber, and are braced above to the principal rafters, and below to the pendant posts. From these latter, arch-braces are taken to the wall-posts slot-tenoned into the principals below purlin-level. From the pendentive posts, shields are fixed at a parallel slope to the pitch of the roof, with curious devices painted upon them, illustrating symbols of the Crucifixion and the Passion. On the right-hand side, in the illustration, the first shield has the scourges, the second the pincers for withdrawing the nails from the hands and feet, the third the dice-horn which was used for the casting of the lots, the fourth the Crown of Thorns, and on the fifth the dice are represented. On the other side the first shows the spear with which the soldier pierced the Saviour's side, together with the sponge on a pole and the ladder used to ascend the Cross, the second the Crucifixion hammer, the third the thirty pieces of silver (in three piles), the fourth a Crusader's sword crossing with a Saracen's scimitar, and the fifth shows the dice again. Winged angels centre each of the great carved cornice.

Fig. 71 is the nave roof of St. Osyth Church, of which that of the N. aisle has already been shown in Fig. 54. This roof is constructed of timbers of light scantling, with a ridge and three purlins. Of these three the central one has a collar-beam arch-braced to hammer-beams, which in turn are braced to wall-posts without corbels. The root' is simple, without carving, and moulded only on the wall-plate, the under sides of the hammer-beams, and the purlins. The common rafters are ashlar-strutted from the top of the wall-plate. This may be described as one of the earliest types of hammer-beam roof, though of late date.

House In The Buttermarket, Ipswich

Fig. 69. House In The Buttermarket, Ipswich - Known as "Sparrowe's House." View showing the roof timbers. Late fifteenth century. Span 1s ft. 6 ins: Length 30 ft. 0 in .

Fig. 72 is a richly decorated roof from Southwold Chancel. It is of the single hammer-beam and braced-collar type, boarded in below the collar and across the common rafters, thus forming panels between the collars, the principals and the purlins. The collar-panelling is omitted, and the boarding taken to the ridge, in the bay at the western end, this being directly over the rood-screen. The entire Chancel roof is richly painted, that of the Nave having the open timbering without decoration. This example is an instance of the dual ownership of the church, dating from very early times, the nave being the property of, and maintained by, the parishioners, the chancel belonging to the church. The latter, therefore, is nearly always more elaborate than the former. The chancel was generally enriched to its decorative limit before any beautifying of the nave was commenced.

Ufford, Suffolk, Chancel Roof.

Fig. 70. Ufford, Suffolk, Chancel Roof. - Framed collar-truss with pendentives, braced to wall-posts. Lute fifteenth century.

The nave roof of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, Fig. 73, is one of a rare type, which may be described as a vaulted hammer-beam. A purlin, - which becomes, in effect, a cornice, - is tenoned to the free ends of the hammer-beams, the latter being masked by a groined vaulting, carried down to slender columns, with caps and bases, placed between the clerestory windows and supported on carved corbels. The roof above the vaulting is simple, with ridge and two purlins, without collars, arch-braced from ridge to cornice, with winged angels applied, over the cornice, at the feet of the arch-braces.

Framlingham has a similar roof, Fig. 74, to St. Peter Mancroft, but differs in being of the arch-braced collar type. The collars are fixed at purlin level. That the vaulting supports the cornice and hammer-beams, to any extent, is doubtful. It is mainly, if not entirely, a decorative detail.

Fig. 75 has cambered collars arch-braced to hammer-beams. The base of each of the wall-posts, above the corbel, is niched, and carved with the standing figure of a Saint. Each hammer-beam is carved in the form of a prone winged angel. Another example of this embellishment of hammer-beams will be noticed, later on, in the instance of Westminster Hall and the roof of the Law Library at Exeter.

St. Osyth, Essex, Nave Roof.

Fig. 71. St. Osyth, Essex, Nave Roof. - Collar-beams braced to hammer-beams. Late fifteenth century.

Southwold Chancel.

Fig. 72. Southwold Chancel. - Single hammer-beam and braced collar type. - Panelled and Decorated, Rood Celure. - Mid-fifteenth century.

ST. Peter Mancroft, Norwich.

Fig. 73. ST. Peter Mancroft, Norwich. - Single hammer-beam, arch-braced frame Couple type. - Vaulted cornice masking hammer-beams. - 26 ft. span.

Framlingham, Suffolk.

Fig. 74. Framlingham, Suffolk. - Roof of the Nave. Vaulted hammer-beam type (c. 1500).