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The Care Of A House | by T. M. Clark



A volume of suggestions to householders, housekeepers, landlords, tenants, trustees, and others, for the economical and efficient care of dwelling-houses

TitleThe Care Of A House
AuthorT. M. Clark
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1917
Copyright1903, The Macmillan Company
AmazonThe Care Of A House

By T. M. Clark, Fellow Of The American Institute Of Architects; Fellow Of The Society Of Arts, London

With illustrations

The Care Of A House
-Preface
Considering the importance to happy family life of a comfortable, wholesome dwelling, and the distress, anxiety, and expense often caused by defects which, if understood in season, might have been eas...
-Chapter I. How A House Is Built
Notwithstanding all that is said about the preference of Americans for hotel life, and the multiplication of apartment-houses, flats, family hotels, and other contrivances for leaving a portion of the...
-How A House Is Built. Continued
Fig. 2. City houses are constructed in very much the same manner as country houses, with stud partitions and wooden beams; but the beams rest at their outer end on brick walls instead of studding. ...
-Chapter II. The Roof
As the plastering of walls and ceilings usually gives, by cracking, the first indication of settlement, shrinkage, or decay in a house, so it also commonly reveals, by stains, the leaks in roofs, or a...
-Chapter III. Chimneys And Fireplaces
If the roof is kept tight, and the walls thoroughly painted, with good materials, at intervals not too long, a wooden house should not give much trouble by leakage, but the fireplaces and chimneys wil...
-Chapter IV. Stoves And Furnaces
Allied with fireplaces, but still more important in their relations to household life, are the stoves and furnaces with which every house is provided. All these consist essentially of an iron fire-box...
-Chapter V. The Kitchen Stove
The kitchen stove deserves at least a chapter to itself, for even a volume could hardly contain a description of the trials which housekeepers suffer in connection with it, and all the ingenious devic...
-The Kitchen Stove. Part 2
There are many other forms of improved grate for kitchen stoves, which have nearly superseded the ancient plain or dumping grate, on account of their efficiency, in intelligent hands, in saving coal a...
-The Kitchen Stove. Part 3
Even where no cold air can leak into the kitchen flue, the draught of the stove may be interfered with by obstructions in the stove itself. As the smoke and heated gases from the fire circulate around...
-Chapter VI. Furnaces
Next to the kitchen stove, the furnace presents the most troublesome problems to the housekeeper; and, in fact, most housekeepers abandon at once problems connected with the furnace, imagining that th...
-Furnaces. Part 2
In another type of furnace, the extension of the heating surface is obtained by means of a system of pipes, vertical, horizontal, circular, conical, or cylindrical, through which the smoke and heated ...
-Furnaces. Part 3
The cleanout doors are usually arranged at the back and sides of the furnace, and such extra doors as are found in front are generally intended either to facilitate the removal of clinkers, or to allo...
-Furnaces. Part 4
Where the ash-pit is clear, annoying but not dangerous obstructions are often due to the accumulation of cinders and clinkers above the grate. The old-fashioned furnaces were generally fitted with a ...
-Furnaces. Part 5
Management of a furnace. Many hot-air furnaces have a hot-water attachment, or combination, consisting of a cast-iron receptacle, of form varying according to the furnace used, or, sometimes, of a...
-Furnaces. Part 6
For the same reason, that a high column of warm air will overpower a low one, if the supply is not sufficient for both, it is very common, where the cold-air box of the furnace is of insufficient capa...
-Chapter VII. Steam And Hot-Water Heating
In most large houses, and in many small ones, heating is effected by means of steam or hot water, on account of the ease with which heat is in this way transmitted to places which could not be reached...
-Steam And Hot-Water Heating. Part 2
Hot-water heating. Although direct hot-water heating, owing, mainly, to its better regulation, but also, perhaps, in some degree, to the lower temperature of the heating surfaces, is less oppressive ...
-Steam And Hot-Water Heating. Part 3
Unfortunately, hot-water systems are not always arranged as they should be, and both pipes and radiators often contain traps for air-bubbles, unprovided with means of escape for the air to the expan...
-Steam And Hot-Water Heating. Part 4
Fig. 11. Remedy for hammering. Fig. 12. Where a steam-heating system has been laid out with insufficient care, so that it gives annoyance by hammering, relief-pipes can often be added in this w...
-Chapter VIII. Plumbing
The greatest comfort and convenience of modern dwellings is the source of some of the housekeeper's worst anxieties; and a sufficient knowledge of plumbing apparatus to be able to keep it from giving ...
-Plumbing. Part 2
Sewage pump. It is hardly necessary to say that the fluid is an admirable, though dilute, fertilizer, and the lover of a garden soon comes to look upon his cesspool, if equipped with a pump in this w...
-Plumbing. Part 3
Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Where the ground about the house is so nearly level that the fall requisite for a proper subsoil irrigation system cannot be obtained, some relief from the annoyance of an over...
-Plumbing. Part 4
Cleaning traps. Even where there is no trap on the main drain, the drain-pipe itself may clog with grease if it is laid with insufficient fall or is exposed to cold air. Contrary to the general belie...
-Plumbing. Part 5
Sinks. Kitchen sink. Pantry-sink. As there is often a question, in fitting up a new house, or refitting an old one, whether copper, German silver, porcelain, or enamelled-iron pantry sinks should b...
-Plumbing. Part 6
Wash-boilers. Washbasins. In many respects a bath is simply a large wash-basin, with supplies, waste, trap, and overflow essentially like those of a wash-basin, but on a larger scale. The best tubs,...
-Plumbing. Part 7
Among the modern closets there is nothing, perhaps, more satisfactory, considering its simplicity and freedom from repairs, than the short flushing-rim hopper, which can be had, including the trap, in...
-Plumbing. Part 8
A more recent form of siphon-closet dispenses with the jet, and obtains the filling of the waste-pipe beyond the trap, essential to siphonic action, by making a sharp bend in it (Fig. 21), so as to im...
-Plumbing. Part 9
The main waste-pipes, in dwelling-houses, are almost always of cast iron, put together with caulked joints of melted lead, wrought-iron pipe, with joints screwed together, being used only for public...
-Plumbing. Part 10
Secondary circulation. Expansion-pipe supplying the hot-water system, so that it can be left open without allowing the water to overflow. In practice the expansion-pipe is usually terminated by a ben...
-Chapter IX. Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy
The disorders to which plumbing in houses is subject may be divided into three classes: those connected with the drains and waste-pipes; those which appear in connection with the supply-pipes; and tho...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 2
Sometimes the smell of the drains will be carried into a house through a fireplace; and, where the smell is particularly noticeable near a fireplace in warm weather, this may be suspected. In summer, ...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 3
Soil-pipes entering flues. Where the pipes are proved tight, the peppermint may show leaks around the fixtures. Most water-closets, for instance, which have the trap formed in the porcelain, includin...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 4
Both iron and brass pipes must be put up with care to allow for expansion, by arranging long, right-angled turns in them, which can spring a little if necessary. Without this precaution the contractio...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 5
Fig. 28. Putting on new washers. Occasionally, where the tank is placed above the ceiling, or overhead in a bath-room, the valve in the cistern is suspended from a lever, from the other end of whi...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 6
Fig. 29. If the rod connecting the float with the ball-cock is found to be straight, but the cistern overflows, this is probably due either to the wearing out of the washer, or to the presence of s...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 7
The enamelled iron now so much used for bathtubs, and to a certain extent for wash-basins, sinks, and other fixtures, is somewhat liable to chipping of the enamel. As with earthenware, the manufacture...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 8
The marble top of a wash-basin should be an inch and a quarter thick, or, at least, an inch and an eighth. This admits of proper dishing around the basin, so that spattered water will run into the l...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 9
If the pipes are found to be frozen on a cold morning, all rash measures should be avoided. With lead pipes, a slight bulge will generally show the location of the trouble, and examination should be m...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 10
Where it is not desirable to make a large addition to the ordinary cost of plumbing, a good and durable effect can be obtained by covering lead, brass, or iron pipes with aluminum bronze, the faucets,...
-Troubles With Plumbing, And Their Remedy. Part 11
After all the traps which have screws or caps have been opened, sponged out, and the caps replaced, the water-closet traps, which have no trap-screw, must be cleared of water by means of a sponge tied...
-Chapter X. Gas-Pipes And Gas-Fixtures
It is fortunate for Americans that the introduction of lighting by coal gas into this country found the manufacture of wrought-iron pipes so well developed that they were immediately adopted for distr...
-Gas-Pipes And Gas-Fixtures. Continued
Fig. 30. Leaks in fixtures. Gas-keys. The joints of swing gas-brackets are made with a tapered plug and spring in the same way; and, as these are not usually subjected to much wear, an occasional...
-Chapter XI. Electrical Fixtures
The inspection of wiring for incandescent lights in buildings, on behalf of the insurance companies, is now so rigid that the householder whose wires have been accepted by the insurance inspector can ...
-Electrical Fixtures. Continued
After the refilling of the cells, a few minutes should be allowed for the battery to recover its powers, and another attempt may be made to obtain a spark. If this is still unsuccessful, the zincs may...
-Chapter XII. The Care of Woodwork
The woodwork used for finishing a house, as distinguished from that which forms a structural part of it, may be divided into two portions, one comprising the standing finish, including the bases, fr...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 2
To return to the stained floor-border which is to frame these creations, it will generally be found that a width of twenty inches for the exposed part of the staining is the most satisfactory, whether...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 3
Whatever wood is used should be in boards seven-eighths of an inch thick. At certain times it has been common to lay wood carpets, consisting of slips of various woods, one-quarter of an inch thick,...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 4
Kitchen floors, which are usually of Georgia pine, are less suited for waxing, for the reason that much water falls on them, and makes the wax white and dull. The best treatment of all would be to sat...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 5
Grease spots. It is only necessary to dissolve a small quantity of the oxalic acid crystals in a cup, keeping them carefully out of the way of children, as oxalic acid is a dangerous poison, and make...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 6
Painted interior finish. Until the glossy old paint is reinvented, those householders who cannot indulge themselves in the luxury of enamel must be content with the ordinary paint, either flatted, ...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 7
Adulterations of white lead. Having procured some genuine white lead, the householder who wishes for good results from his painting should also buy linseed oil. The linseed oil of commerce is almost ...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 8
Varnish. Painting plastered walls. Size colors. When badly mixed or put on, however, fresco painting is likely to give trouble in various ways. It is usual to brush a new wall or ceiling over with ...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 9
The papering of ceilings, once almost universal in good houses, is now out of fashion, the close, bandbox-like effect of a room with the walls and ceilings entirely covered with figured paper having l...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 10
Paste for wall-papers. A few careful owners of tenements for the poor require corrosive sublimate, or mercuric chloride, to be added to the paste used for putting on papers. This, being very poisonou...
-The Care of Woodwork. Part 11
Outside varnish cannot be retouched, or properly covered with a fresh coat; and the only thing to be done, when a varnished door becomes shabby, is to scrape off the old varnish, or remove it with oxa...
-Chapter XIII. Keeping A House In Repair
To none of the concerns of life is the proverb about a stitch in time more applicable than to the matter of keeping a building in repair. The little leak, if not attended to, soon becomes a large on...
-Keeping A House In Repair. Part 2
As the disorders of exterior woodwork generally proceed from decay, it is hardly possible to take too great precautions against exposing timber of any sort to alternations of dryness and moisture. If ...
-Keeping A House In Repair. Part 3
The proper dimensions having been ascertained, a pane may be cut from any spare pieces at hand. For amateurs, it is convenient to mark the outline of the pane required on a piece of paper, and put the...
-Keeping A House In Repair. Part 4
Twisted window cords. If the pulleys, cords, and weights are kept in good order, a window is not likely to give trouble for many years. The parting beads sometimes warp and spring out of place, but t...







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previous page: How To Take Care Of Your Home | by Douglas Tuomey
  
page up: Fixing and Repair Books
  
next page: Mechanics Of The Household | by E. S. Keene