Laying And Scraping Floors. Quarter - sawed stock makes the best wearing floor. However, oak wears well in either plain or quarter-sawed forms. All hard wood finish floors are milled with tongues and grooves on edges and ends. Holes for nailing are usually drilled at the mill also.

In laying a finish floor, it is not advisable to lay it with its lengths extending in the same direction as those of the rough floor. The shrinkage of the wide boards of the under floor will open unseemly cracks in the finish floor. Where it is necessary to run lengths for both floors in the same direction the finish floor should be separated from the rough floor by thin furring, such as lath, placed 16" apart. Rough floors laid diagonally overcome this difficulty. Paper is usually placed between the two floors. Care should be taken in starting a floor to select straight boards. Where grooves fail to fit tongues of boards that are laid, a piece of 2"x4" about 3' or 4' long should be used as a pounding block that the tongue of the board being laid may not be battered, the most common cause of trouble in floor laying. Nails are driven "toeing" thru the board just above the tongue that the heads may be concealed and also to better draw the board in position. Hammer marks showing upon the face of a floor indicate carelessness. It is not necessary that nails should always strike joists, for a good rough floor will hold such nails with sufficient firmness. Where nails must be driven into hard maple, a hole must be drilled first. On the great majority of hard woods the dipping of the point of the nail in soap or oil will cause it to enter the wood with careful driving, without the drilling of a hole.

Fig. 142. Locating Knob Spindle Hole

Fig. 142. Locating Knob Spindle Hole.

Fig. 143. Locating Selvage Gain

Fig. 143. Locating Selvage Gain.

Fig. 144. Ready for the Lock

Fig. 144. Ready for the Lock.

After a hardwood floor has been laid it should be scraped. Scraping floors is a tedious task at best. Electrically driven machines now relieve the carpenter of much of this work, the floors being laid and finished by a specialist in floor work. The shoe mould is placed last, being nailed to the floor, so that any shrinkage of the joists will cause the mould to drop with the floor. Base board and shoe mould should be stained, but not varnished, before the mould is placed.

On account of waste in tonguing and grooving and straightening flooring stock, an allowance of from 1/5 to extra is necessary in estimating