Walls And Partitions; Joists And Rough Floors. A study of Figs. 16,17,18, 19, 20 and 29 should give an understanding of the essential members of the framed wall of a building, and their relations one to another.
Whether side walls shall be framed and raised before the rough or false floor of the first story is laid will depend upon the type of sill construction made use of. In laying off studs, joists, etc., a pattern is first framed. These patterns are afterward used in the building and are therefore counted in with the total number of pieces to be framed. To these patterns, stops and fences are attached near the two ends and at the middle, Fig. 30. The other studs or joists of similar dimensions are laid off one at a time by superimposing these patterns and marking about them with pencil, Fig. 31.
Fig. 31. Marking Joists from Pattern.
Fig. 32-b. Corner Post Types.
Ribband or ribbon boards and plates are laid off by placing them alongside the "layout" for the studs made upon the sills, and transcribing the marks to the ribband board and plate by means of try-square and pencil. Sometimes ribband boards and plates are laid off by measurement, as are sills.
Corner posts are constructed first and placed. Fig. 32-a shows a section of a corner post which has much to commend it. Fig. 32-b illustrates a more common type of construction. The most serious objection to this type is the fact that the post must be furred after the lather has placed the lath upon one side of the room. Corner posts are plumbed and stayed in two directions, after being raised, Fig. 33. Either 2" x 4" or 1" x 6" stock will be used for stays. With the corner posts set, the ribband boards are placed. Where the span is too long for any available length of ribband board, in laying out the ribband boards provision must be made for their "breaking" joints upon studs. These studs will be raised immediately after the corner posts, the ribband board attached to corner post and stud, after which the stud will be plumbed and stayed, Fig. 34. Studs are framed before being raised so that ribband boards may be "let into" them as shown in Fig. 34. Second and third floor joists will be notched to slip over these boards and will be spiked to the studs in addition. Remaining studs are placed one at a time, one man setting up and nailing the foot while another fastens the ribband board to the stud at the second floor line, Fig. 35.
Fig. 33. Corner Post Being Plumbed and Stayed.
Fig. 34. Side Wall Stayed.
With the completion of the raising of the two outside walls which are to bear the joist ends, the middle partition, should there be one, paralleling these walls should be framed and raised. A slightly different procedure from that just described is followed, that is, instead of raising one stud at a time the whole partition is framed and nailed together upon the floor, even to the cutting in of headers, etc. When a section such as the number of men available can raise is ready, the same is raised, and stayed after being plumbed. The studs of partitions are framed but one story high and "plated" at such a height that second floor joists may be placed thereon in splicing. Just as far as possible first and second floor joists should be spaced to rest one directly above another and in line with the supporting studs of partitions so that furnace stacks may be placed with ease. If joists rest upon partition plates and not directly above studs, a double plate must be made use of.
Having placed the second floor joists, the studs at the ends of the house may be set up. Their locations will be marked upon sill and upon second floor joist which is to be placed at the end of the house. This marking is best done by placing the joist upon the sill and transcribing the marks laid out upon the sill to the joist, after which it is to be raised into place.
Double plates will next be framed. They should break upon studs and be marked by transcribing the marks for the studs from the sills. At the corners the plates will be framed with butt joints, the second set lapping over the joints made by the first plate.
Fig. 35. Setting up Studs and Attaching to Ribbon Board.
Next, the sustaining middle partition of the second story is raised as was that of the first story. The attic floor joists are placed as were those for the second floor.
All walls and partitions are now "lined up," that is, any irregularities are taken out by additional stays.
False or rough floors are laid in the various stories where not already placed, bridging being placed and openings for stairs and chimneys framed. Such floors are laid either diagonally or straight across the joists. The diagonal floor is considered better, Fig. 27.