Sills And Girders. In Fig. 21 will be found illustrated three types of box sill construction. Whatever the sill used, care must be taken to so plan that mice may not have free access to the various parts of the building. If the sill does not inhibit, then blocks should be spiked between the studs. Such blocks serve as fire breaks.
Fig. 18. Half-Frame House.
Fig. 19. Balloon Frame House.
Fig. 20. Plank Frame Barn.
The bed plate of the box sill should be selected from stock with straight edges. In the framing of joists, plan so that the crowning edges shall be up when in position, and in placing the joists see that the most crowning are in the middle of a room. Joists are fastened to their sills as in Fig. 21.
Fig. 22-a illustrates a built up girder, and the manner of framing the joists to it. Three 2" x 10"'s with a 2"x 4" attached to each side, the whole thoroly spiked together, form the girder. The advantage of this type of girder lies mainly in the fact that it leaves the headroom of a basement clear, which is not the case in the type shown in Fig. 22-b. This second type is somewhat easier to frame, and is therefore greatly used where the owner does not object.
Fig. 21. Three Types of Box Sills.
It is better where furnace stacks must be placed in a partition above it.
First floor joists, like second floor joists and studs, should be
Girder Types spaced 16 inches from center to center, beginning at one side or end of a room. Not to make such provision would cause a waste in lathing, since the lath are all 4 feet in length, a multiple of 16 inches. Any remainder after such a spacing should be allowed to come at the side or end of the room.