Methods Of Framing The Superstructure. In the early days when lumber was plentiful, houses and barns were framed in what is known as "full frame." Such frames consisted of heavy and solid timbers mortised and tenoned and pinned together, Figs. 16 and 17. With the growing scarcity of lumber the "half frame" of Fig. 18 became common. This latter type, it will be seen, makes less use of heavy timbers and wooden pins, and more use of planks and nails. To-day the vast majority of buildings, where wood is the material used are constructed by what is known as "balloon framing" in houses and " plank framing" in barns, Figs. 19 and 20. In view of this, attention will be directed to balloon framing only. One who is able to frame a house should have no trouble with plank barn framing, where drawings show the details.

Fig. 16. Full Frame House

Fig. 16. Full Frame House.

Fig. 17. Heavy Timber Barn

Fig. 17. Heavy Timber Barn.

It must be understood, too, that there are quite a variety of ways of framing a balloon and a plank frame. It will be possible in this chapter to treat of but one type. A mastery of this one type should enable the student to work out other types, with suitable detailed drawings provided him.