Total Building Costs By Percentages. Having carefully estimated the costs of one or two of the large items in a building, such as lumber or millwork or labor, the total cost of a building may be approximated with a fair degree of accuracy by a general contractor by means of the following table of percentages. Foundations or any other parts of a building which may be unusual should be excluded and figured separately in detail. In any event, before a building is finally completed the contractor will have to settle with each sub-contractor upon the basis of detailed cost estimates. Where time is available, the contractor as a rule secures bids from the various sub-contractors, such as the plumber, the lather, the mason, etc., combining these and adding his commission of 10% for oversight, and an additional 10% for incidentals or contingencies.

## Costs By Percentages

 Items Frame Building Brick Dwelling Excavation, brick and cut stone...................... 16% 36%. Plastering and materials, including lathing............. 8 6 Millwork including glass and glazing.................. 21 20 Lumber........................................... 19 12 Carpentry labor ........... 18 10 Hardware......................................... 3½ 3 Tinwork and galvanized iron......................... 2½ 4½ Plumbing and gas fitting and materials................ 7 3 Painting and materials.............................. 5 5½ Heating (not included) Total......................................... 100% 100%

Example:

A lumber bill for a given frame house is found to "figure" \$500, determine the approximate cost of the various sub-contracts, and for the house as a whole.

 \$500 = 19% of the total cost. Total cost = \$2632 (exclusive of heating). Excavation, brick and cement work = 16% of \$2632 = \$421.12 Plastering = 8% of \$2632.................................... = 210.56 Millwork and glazing = 21% of \$2632........................ = 552.72 Carpentry labor = 18% of \$2632............................. .= 473.76 Hardware=3½% of \$2632.................................. = 92.12 Tinwork = 2½% of \$2632................................... = 65.80 Plumbing = 7% of \$2632.................................... SB 184.24 Painting = 5% of \$2632...................................... = 131.60 Lumber...................... = 500.00 \$2631.92

To this must be added heating, electric wiring, electric and gas fixtures, window shades, cement walks, sewerage, grading, decoration of walls, architect's fee and contractor's commission.