(Bell Chuck Work) Material: Birch, maple, apple, or any close-grained hard wood

The methods of turning, given in connection with this exercise, are applicable to hollow work, such as cups, vases, etc.

Exercise VIII Napkin Rings 68

Fig. 63.

First, the stock is placed in the lathe between centers and turned to a cylinder. The end of the cylinder is then turned down small enough so that it can be driven into the bell chuck (see A, Fig. 7). The bell chuck is then screwed on to the spindle of the lathe, and the interior of the napkin ring is turned out. Use the inside calipers to measure with. The outside is turned next, and the ring is then sandpapered and finished, either shellac or wax finish being used.

Exercise VIII Napkin Rings 69

Fig. 64.

When the ring is finished, cut it off, using the cut-off tool, and chuck it. Chuck it on what remains of the stock from which the ring was turned. This is done by turning the end small enough for the ring to slip over it snugly. After chucking, finish the end.

To make a substitute for a bell chuck. Where no bell chuck can be had, a substitute for a bell chuck may be made by using a wood face plate, turning out a hole in the center to receive the stock. To make it doubly secure, the stock may be glued into the face plate.

Sometimes such work is fastened on the screw-center chuck. When the piece is long, this method of holding it is not advisable.