ASH, (Fraxinus excelsa;) Europe and North of Asia; mean size, 38 ft. long by 23 in. diam., sometimes much larger. The young wood is brownish-whits with a shade of green; the old, oak-brown with darker veins. Some specimens from Hungary with a zigzag grain, and some of the pollards, are very handsome for furniture.

Ash is superior to any other British timber for its toughness and elasticity; it is excellent for works exposed to sudden shocks and strains, as the frames of machines, wheel-carriages, agricultural implements, the felloes of wheels, and the inside work of furniture, Ac. The wood is split into pieces for the springs of bleachers' rubbing boards, which are sometimes 40 feet long; also for handspikes, billiard cues, hammer handles, rails chairs, and numerous similar works, which are much stronger when they follow the natural fibre of the wood.

Ash is too flexible and insufficiently durable for building purposes; the young branches serve for hoops for ships' masts, tubs, churns, etc.

Several species are found in North America: of these it is thought that the White Ash, or Fraxinus americena, cornea the nearest in quality of wood to the common ash. P. floribbunda and zanthoxyloides are two ashes found in the Himalayas.

Fraxinus ornus produces manna. Fraxinus txcelsa produces a manna somewhat similar.

Ash, the Mountain ASH, or Quicken or Rowan tree, Pyrus Aucuparia, trows in almost every soil or situation, has fine-grained hard wood, which may be stained of any colour, and takes a high polish, and is applied to the same purposes as the wood of the beam and service trees. See SERVICE.-TREE.