The construction of the Menu holders, figs. 683 - 685 and that of the Stands for China, figs. 713 - 717 and 719 requires no description, all the vertical pieces, with the exception of that in the last, which is shaped by the piercing saw, being single pieces inserted in apertures pierced eccentrically in the base. The first of the Menu holders, figs. 715. 716, carries a series of small inserted hemispheres upon its lower edge, an ornament reverted to in later examples; both have a saw-kerf made through their heads to carry the card. The upright supporting the plate in fig. 718, is made of several pieces fitted together in the manner shown by many other figures described in detail; all the flat bases of the china stands have their surfaces recessed to form an edge, or when left flat, a deep notch, like that for the finger in a sliding box lid, cut across them, to retain the edge of the plate.

Fig. 714 is a square frame formed of four cubes joined by cylinders, the upright being inserted in the upper surface of a similar cube in the center of one transverse cylinder; these parts may be turned from pieces having an original square section leaving the cubes in the solid, or the cubes and cylinders may be jointed into each other, the ornaments being inserted in the faces of the former. The square frame work of fig. 720 has its three side cubes joined by two, and transversely, by three plain cylinders; the portion of a ring terminated by a cube serving for the support, being fixed to the face of another cube in the center of one of the external transverse pieces.

Table ware, of which figs. 723. 724, seven and nine inches high respectively, are useful examples easily constructed, admits great variety of form and purpose. The two glass saucers of fig. 723 are carried by shallow bowls which are attached by central pins turned beneath them in the solid, in apertures made in a flat piece of wood; the edge of which is shaped by hand into two circles connected by a straight or curved portion, as in the plan fig. 712. Three small turned feet are inserted in the flat piece at either end below, and the handle from above. In fig. 724 the glass jars are carried in a similar manner, the fittings turned beneath the bowls passing through the flat foundation plate and screwing into the circular feet below. The fascine handle is formed of several pieces, having a plain cylinder for its core, shown in plan fig. 721; the two ends of the core are reduced as screwed pins fitting into the flange of the urn and that of the base; a pin turned upon the lower end of the base passing through the foundation plate and screwing into a fourth piece beneath. The reeds are separate slender rods, and have their extremities received in a shallow circular recess sunk in each flange; they are readily-turned with the flat tool or chisel, the support of the left forefinger placed around them from below, page 132, usually sufficing to enable them to withstand the thrust of the tool, but the support of the guide for slender turning, fig. 139, is sometimes desirable; all are made to the same length, diameter and parallel. The plain cylinder of the core is left rather too large in diameter and then reduced, until by trial, the sides of the reeds exactly meet when placed around it; then held in position by a string wound around them, they give the diameter for the recesses to be turned in the flanges, and for the rings which apparently bind the handle together.

Section II Specimens Generally Larger And For Usef 400382

Plate XVI.

Many beautiful varieties of clustered columns used for pedestals, furniture and chimney pieces, some of which are shown in plan by the diagrams figs. 722. 725. 726, are turned in a similar manner. In the last, the four pieces of the shaft turned precisely alike, are then planed away on one side to an angle of 90°, the shafts and their various terminal and other mouldings turned in one solid, then exactly mitreing. The pilasters in the other diagrams are separated by angular edges, obtained by planing flats on one side, for their attachment to a triangular or rectangular core.

The Epergnes, figs. 727 to 729, carrying glass or china bowls, and from fifteen to eighteen inches in total height, are more elaborate, but only from the greater number of parts of which they are composed. The circular base of the first stands upon three feet, and carries three vases holding flower glasses surrounding the central form, which touching the vases to give stability, is surmounted by a flat circular piece having three projections to receive the vertical shafts, shown in plan fig. 710; above which a little vase is attached to complete the lower axial figure. The upper extremities of the shafts, are received in a similar piece beneath the tazza.

The triformed piece, fig. 710, is first turned to thickness as a cylinder, flat on both faces, of a diameter sufficient for the length of the projections, and pierced with a plain central aperture for its attachment to the vase or base. Then chucked by the central aperture, a circle is marked on the face to give the positions for the holes for the shafts, and a second circle marked within this, the diameter of the arcs between the projections. The outer circle divided by the division plate, is then marked with three equi-distant radial lines, continued to the margin and marked also along the cylindrical edge, that the piece when reversed on the chuck may be adjusted to have corresponding lines and circles scribed upon the under side. Removed from the chuck, the intersections of the outer circles are indented with a center punch, and are then bored or turned with plain holes to receive the pins of the shafts. Subsequently both surfaces are marked with lines on either side of, and parallel with the first three, for the projections, - the forms of which may otherwise be contained by radial lines, circles or other curves as determined, -to serve to guide the saw in cutting away the superfluous portions between; the exact shape being finished to these lines and the arcs of the circles, square to the surface, with the file. The shafts, which have precisely similar mouldings at either end, are secured in their places by turned screws with ornamental heads, passing into them from above and from below.