The manipulation of the hand tools employed in the production of the following specimens, requires little further elucidation than that already given upon the various surfaces and solids, in the chapters on elementary hard and soft wood turning; while the chucks referred to, together with their more particular purposes, have been also already described. The tools to be used will be mentioned, and the mode indicated, together with collateral matters so far as may appear necessary; but attention will be principally directed to the various methods of chucking, the precautions observed to ensure concentric truth upon the different surfaces, the most suitable positions for the joints, and the modes of fitting together the various pieces of which the work is composed.

Works of moderate dimensions turned between centers, that is, carried by the prong chuck or the square hole chuck, and supported by the point of the popit head; which, consisting of single pieces of material the length way of the grain, may be finished at one chucking, will be first described ; and it will be observed that much that may be said upon the production of these simple forms, applies as directly to the formation of the parts of more elaborate specimens. A ruler, a rolling pin, and various rods and handles are familiar examples; the precautions followed in turning the cylinder have been described, a tool handle, fig. 608, and a nine-pin, fig. 609, will serve as plain and more ornate specimens of the class.

Short turning tool handles of the form of fig. 608, range from about five to eight inches in length, and the material, whether of hard or softwood, is usually cut out square by the saw, of just sufficient size for the largest diameter to be contained by its square sides. These pieces are carried by a square hole chuck, fig. 195. When turned of beech or other softwood, a gouge about an inch and a quarter wide, lying on its back as in turning the cylinder, is first employed to turn away the corners and rough the piece true to the taper form shown by the dotted lines; the tee of the rest being placed close to the work, and remaining parallel with its axis throughout this and the following operations. A chisel of about half the width of the gouge, is then used to turn down the end nearly cylindrical to receive the brass ferrule. The tool is first applied as in turning a surface, supported on its edge, the acute corner beneath, with the bevil of the cutting edge next the chuck at right angles to the axis of the work. A surface incision is made to form a square shoulder, a sufficient distance from the end to meet the square edge of the ferrule ; and then lying on its face as in turning a cylinder, the tool is employed to reduce the pin, for which latter cut, the chisel being wider than the length of the pin, it does not require traversing. These two cuts, which are also employed in making the external plain fitting for joining any two pieces of softwood, are continued alternately, until the pin, left very slightly taper, is reduced to the required size; a pair of callipers or a piece of sheet metal filed with a deep notch being used to gage the diameter.

The method of cutting up the brass tube into short lengths for the ferrules, is shown by fig. 196. The tube is placed upon a wooden arbor, usually turned from one of the pieces cut out for the handles being made, which passes easily within it and is parallel, except close to the chuck end where the arbor is left slightly taper to hold the tube. The width of the ferrules are scored upon the revolving tube with the points of a pair of compasses, after which a thick, acute point tool, fig. 448, is used to divide the whole, commencing at the end next the popit head; the bevil on the left side of the tool being held at right angles to the work, which leaves every ferrule with one true flat end. The pin turned upon the handle is inserted in the square end of a ferrule, and the two are held vertically upon some hard surface, while the former is driven into the latter with the hammer; the pin being rather less in length than the ferrule, the two surfaces arrive in exact contact. The work is then returned to the lathe, the end of the ferrule is turned true and square with the same point tool, and its cylindrical portion with a flat tool, fig. 452; a small quantity of brass lacker being immediately applied with a brush to preserve the bright surface from subsequent tarnish, the heat arising from the turning serving to instantly evaporate the spirit and dry the lacker. The ferrule may be ornamented with a milling tool or by one or two fine lines cut upon it with the point tool, previously to its being lackered.

Fig. 608.

Section II Axial Or Simple Plain Turning 400360

The work still in revolution then has the total length scored upon it, by one point of a pair of wing compasses opened to the size, the other point being held against the end of the ferrule. After which it is turned down nearly to the finished form with the gouge, lying always upon its back; the end near the chuck being nicked in, somewhat after the manner described in turning the back surface. The largest diameter upon the swell, and the smallest upon the neck, are determined by the callipers, or when turning quantities, by two other notches cut in the sheet metal gage, previously used, so as to leave the work with but little to be removed by the chisel, with which the form is then completed. The chisel is held and used, very much as in turning a soft wood cylinder or cone; the edge is first laid upon the highest portion of the swell, its shaft having both a vertical and horizontal angle, both the corners free of the work; the blade is traversed down hill towards the right, the obtuse angle leading, following the contour given by the gouge until the shaving removed has been carried so far as the smallest diameter of the neck. Whereupon the chisel is removed, turned over and laid upon the highest portion of the round next the ferrule; the horizontal angle being thus reversed, the tool is traversed from right to left until this shaving merges into the preceding cut.