The chisel is then again reversed and placed upon the top of the round next the ferrule to turn its short curve, which is half that of a bead, much after the manner of turning a small sphere. The bevil is laid on the top of the round by a portion of the cutting edge very close to its obtuse corner, with the shaft, at about right angles to the axis of the work, and then, without permitting the shaft to obtain any horizontal inclination, it is slightly rotated upon itself by the right hand holding the handle, until the obtuse corner arrives at the ferrule. For the fourth and concluding cut, the chisel once more reversed, the obtuse angle thus always leading, is laid upon the top of the swell and traversed towards the left, being brought to rest nearly upon its side, as it arrives at the point of the handle to sever that from the piece remaining in the chuck.
There is no difficulty in exactly joining these four cuts so as to form one continuous surface or curve, the junction upon the neck only requiring rather more care than that upon the convexities, to prevent the one side of the hollow curve dipping below the level of the other or joining in a flat. It is more likely until after a little practice, that the curves will be turned flatter than is intended, but this may be avoided by at first turning the form pretty accurately with the gouge, and then endeavouring to take an equal shaving all along it with the chisel; bearing in mind that the blade of the chisel in traversing the curve acquires, but in a very slight degree, the twist described for turning the softwood sphere. The position of the left hand placed around the work with the thumb upon the blade of the chisel, page 264, may also be used with advantage. Some of, or all the four cuts will require repetition, but when a number of one size of handles are turned, the form and direction of the curves are soon appreciated, when they may often be correctly produced by single traverses of the tool, provided the gouge has been efficiently used in roughing out the form.
Hardwood handles may be turned in a similar manner with the gouge and chisel, but ground to the less acute angle suitable to the material; or they may be rough turned to shape with the gouge and finished with the flat and bevil tools for hardwood. In traversing the convex curves, the flat tool is held in the horizontal manner, lying flat on the rest; upon the concaves, it is slightly tilted upon one of the sides of the blade, page 303, to place the corners of the cutting edge free of the work. The bevil tool, fig. 387, may be used for the portion from the point to the top of the swell. In turning handles in quantity every piece is turned taper with the gouge and the pin turned to the size for the ferrule, all are then driven into their ferrules ; the different pieces are then returned to the lathe, the ferrules finished, and the gouge, chisel or other tools consecutively used upon each. The last process is to strike a deep center punch mark on either side of the ferrule, to prevent it loosening from possible shrinkage of the wood; the ferrule end being supported in an angular notch cut in the end way of the grain of a piece of hardwood, used held in the bench vice.
The handles when turned have to be bored, and may require glass paper for smooth finish. A carpenter's nose or spoon bit of small size is employed, mounted in a boxwood chuck, in figs. 231. 232, or in one of the die chucks; the handles are thrust straight on to the bit by the hand, and are frequently withdrawn to clear the former from the accumulated shavings, the bit being also lubricated from time to time with tallow.
The bit is then exchanged for a slender, taper arbor, made from a piece of steel wire and mounted in a chuck in a similar manner; the handles are thrust on to this by the hand, which gives them a sufficient hold for glass papering and polishing.
The round hole in the handle is subsequently enlarged to fit the taper tang of the tool, being fretted out to a rectangular shape with floats, taper steel tools, some narrow and comparatively thick, others wide and thin, cut across upon one face with teeth resembling those of a coarse saw. A different form of tool handle, used for hammers and screw drivers, has a wide, flat surface on either side at its largest diameter. The material is sawn out of oblong section, and is carried between the point of the popit head and a taper, hollow plain wood chuck, or for quantities, in fig. 193. The extreme corners at the one end, are first roughly cut off in the direction of their length with the turning chisel, from every piece as it is placed in the chuck, that it may more readily seat itself in the circular aperture. The turning is precisely the same as for fig. 608; but the cutting is intermittent at the larger part of the handle where the flats occur, analogous to the steel key, fig. 491, wood however permits the circular portions and the edges of the flat part to be entirely turned to shape. The flat sides are planed smooth after the turning is completed.
The nine-pin, fig. 609, varying from four to twelve inches high, would be turned from material roughly rounded with the axe or paring knife, mounted between the prong chuck and the point of the popit head. Several being required all precisely alike, the work is executed upon some system to ensure similarity, one being generally turned to the finished form to serve as a model for the remainder; the mode of turning the various forms upon fig. 609 in softwood, will serve also for all analogous curves in that material.
The piece is first turned roughly cylindrical with the gouge, and the end true with the chisel, as in turning the surface fig. 349. The total length of the work is then marked off upon the cylinder, and the latter is nicked in as in turning the back surface, leaving the end square for the base, at a little distance beyond this mark. Measured from this square edge, the distances and widths of the band, astragal and bead of the head, B C and D are then scored on the revolving work with the compasses, taking care to mark the widths of all in excess of that required. Shallow surface incisions are then made with the chisel, supported vertically upon its edge, at all the lines marked to denote the widths of the different mouldings; the whole form is then reduced somewhat to that of the dotted line with the gouge, taking precaution to leave sufficient diameters for the mouldings, and also to deepen the vertical cuts at C and D, that they may not become obliterated by the process of reduction. The band and other projections are then more carefully reduced in diameter with the gouge, under the guidance of callipers, and the long curves retraced with the tool, so as to leave but little to be removed by the chisel, with which the form is principally completed.