The central form of fig. 728, is composed of several pieces, the tazza at the summit, its neck, the overhanging piece carrying the arms, a circular core, surrounded by short cylinders contained between two flanges, and the pedestal, in which the cornice, dado, plinth and columns are also separate. The little cylinders are retained in their places in the same manner as those of fig. 724 ; the core being turned in the solid with one flange and fitted or screwed into the other. The ends of the lower tier of columns, are received in apertures made around the cornice and plinth of the pedestal, so that both these latter cannot be screwed into the abutting portion of the main figure; the plinth is attached by a large screw fitting turned in the solid upon its upper surface, the cornice has a plain fitting and is secured when the columns are in position, by a screw turned upon the piece of the stem above passing through it into that below. The smaller china bowls are carried upon tazzas, repeating the form of that for the center, supported by arms formed of cylinders attached to semi-circles. The rods are in two pieces, the lower having a shoulder and a plain fitting of slightly reduced diameter passing through holes made in the edge of the overhanging flange, and terminating in screws to receive the upper portions which secure them in position. Wood or ivory rods of very small diameter employed in this manner, may be strengthened by enclosed brass wires; the shaft is first bored with a pipe bit, page 310, and reduced to external diameter after the wire is inserted. Only two branches are drawn in fig. 728 to avoid confusion, but they may be three or four in number, when the latter, the vertical portions may be of additional length in the one pair, so as to place the bowls at different levels.

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Plate XVII.

The shaft of fig. 729, passing through a flat plate of the form already described, and secured by an ornament screwed on it from below, is of a single piece ; the three feet formed of cubes with the other portions inserted in all their faces, being attached by quadrants of square section, terminating in little separate turned collars, and secured to the projections by screws with ornamental heads from above. All parts repeated in the foregoing examples are turned consecutively, both for convenience in chucking and to more easily arrive at uniformity in their several dimensions.

In the Flower-pot stand, fig. 731, fourteen inches high, the three uprights may be turned from single pieces squared at the ends, which terminate in pins, or carry inserted hardwood pins, to secure the flat table and the curved feet; the latter, formed from rings of square section. The uprights are connected together and retained parallel, by a circular plate and short transverse pieces below. The flat top is turned circular held upon the screw worm chuck, after which the arcs are hollowed in the margin, leaving small intervals of the original edge. Upon a reduced scale the arcs may be turned cut through from the surface, as with fig. 700, but in the larger example under consideration, they are more conveniently cut out with a turning saw, fig. 710, Vol. II., and finished with the file and scraper to lines previously marked upon both surfaces. On account of its size, fig. 731, would probably be turned in mahogany or other softwood, which may be afterwards dyed if desired; and for the same reason, the lifting blocks, page 180, would be required for its production in a five inch center lathe.

This stand and some other examples just touch the application of turning to furniture, a branch of the art however, which in its elegance and usefulness comprehends too universal a range for more than mere allusion here.

The Wall Mirrors, figs. 730. 732, about sixteen inches in total height, are simple examples of numerous works constructed of turned pieces, flattened on one side and attached from behind by ordinary joiner's screws, to flat wood backs or foundations shaped out to the same outline. The inner edges of the turned work may extend over those of the central aperture in the back, to form the internal rebate to carry the glass, which is secured in position by a second thin plate of wood screwed down to the other side of the back. This is unsuitable to turned work of inconsiderable width, such as the arch of fig. 733. The entire aperture is then cut out to the inner profile of the assembled turned work, and the glass, rather larger than the aperture, is laid down on the other side of the back; being retained in position by slips of wood, equal to it in thickness and placed around as a frame to form the rebate; the whole being covered by a thin plate of wood the size of the interposed frame. The turned portions forming the entablature, base and pendant of fig. 730, finished and polished while still circular, are then cut through parallel with their diameters by the saw, and their flat sides finished with the plane and scraper; the parts employed being considerably more than the semi-circle, for better effect and for the larger to also serve as brackets. The pins of the columns are inserted in the ordinary manner, the flattening of the shafts and mouldings leaving them intact; the arch above being rather more than the half of a ring, and having a circular rebate turned in its under side to receive the upper piece of glass. All the parts are tried together as they are produced on some flat surface to ascertain that all are reduced to one level, they are then laid down upon the back, a flat piece of mahogany, slightly glued to it at intervals with pieces of paper interposed between the glued surfaces to retain them in position while the holes are bored through from behind, and all the screws inserted. The outlines being marked all around them, all the turned work is removed, that the back may be cut out to shape, if necessary dyed, and polished, after which the parts are finally fixed together. Fig. 732, constructed in the same manner, has the bases of its columns left square, and its pointed arch formed by two portions of a ring.

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731.

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Plate XVIII.

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Plate XIX.