CUTLERY is ground and polished with the various natural and artificial grinders, the constructions and applications of which are described under the article Wheels in this Catalogue: the ordinary succession of the principal processes will be therefore alone adverted to in this place.
1. - Fine Cutlery. - The manufacture of a razor blade of the best quality may be viewed as a suitable example of the mode of treating articles of fine cutlery: the succession of processes is as follows: - 1st, the blade is moulded; 2ndly, forged; 3rdly, ground into form and scorched, or the black scale ground off: this is done on a dry coarse Wickersley grit stone; 4thly, the blade is drilled for the joint and stamped with the name; 5thly, hardened and tempered (see vol. 1, page 248); 6thly, ground on a wet Wickersley grit stone from 4 to 8 inches diameter; 7thly, the shoulders of the blade are sometimes ground on a fine dry stone; for this purpose the edge of the stone is waxed up, or kept keen by rubbing bees-wax on the side near the periphery to hold the particles of the stone together; the wax keeps the stone from crumbling away, but the dry stone should be sparingly used after hardening, as it is liable to soften the edge of the blade; 8thly, the blade is lapped on a lead lap of a diameter a little smaller than the grindstone employed in the 6th process - the lap scarcely alters in course of use, and gives the true curve to the surfaces; 9thly, the tang and back are glazed on a leather glazer; 10thly, the razor blade is polished on a soft buff wheel fed with dry crocus and revolving very slowly. This completes the manufacture of the blade, which is then ready to be handled preparatory to the setting, which will be described in Chapter XXXII (Grinding And Sharpening Cutting Tools. Section I. - Grinding Cutting Tools On The Ordinary Grindstone).
The best penknife blades and scissors are treated in a similar manner to the above.
2. - Common Cutlery. - All work should be scorched or dry ground to remove the scale before hardening, but this is frequently omitted in common works, and the usual routine after hardening is, 1st, the coarse wet stone; 2ndly, the fine wet stone; and, 3rdly, the buff with fine emery. Sometimes one or more intermediate stages between the extremes of the common and best cutlery are resorted to, according to price. Common razors, after being hardened, are, 1st, ground on a wet stone from 12 to 15 inches diameter; 2ndly, lapped; and, 3rdly, polished. 3. - Edge Tools are treated the same as common cutlery.