Applicable to nearly all the metals; the modes of treatment very differ The soft-solder mostly used, is 2 parts tin and 1 part lead; sometimes from mot of economy much more lead is employed, and 1 1/2 tin to 1 lead is the most fusible of the group unless bismuth is used. The fluxes B to G, and the modes of heating a to i, are all used with the soft solders.

Note. - The examples commence with the metals to be soldered. Thus in the list Zinc, 8, C,f, implies, that zinc is soldered with No. 8 alloy, by the aid of the muriate or chloride of zinc, and the copper bit. Lead, 4 to 8, F, d,e, implies that lead is soldered with alloys varying from No. 4 to 8, and that it is fluxed with tallow, the heat being applied by pouring on melted solder, and the subsequent use of the heated iron not tinned; but in general one only of the modes of heating is selected, according to circumstances.

Iron, cast-iron, and steel, 8, B, D, if thick heated by a, b, or c, and also by g. 447 and 448.

Tinned iron, 8, C, D,f. 446.

Silver and Gold are soldered with pure tin or else with 8, E, c, g, or h.

Copper and many of its alloys, namely, brass, gilding metal, gun-metal, etc. 8, B, C, D; when thick heated by a, b, e, e, or g, and when thin by f or g. 4470.

Speculum metal, 8, B, C, D, the heat should be moat cautiously applied, the sand-bath is perhaps the beat mode.

Zinc, 8, C,f. 447.

Lead and lead pipes, or ordinary plumbers' work, 4 to 8, F, d, or e. 445.

Lead and tin pipes, 8, D O mixed, g, and also f. 449. Britannia metal, 8, C, D, g.

Pewters, the solders must vary in fusibility according to the fusibility of the metal, generally G, and i, are used, sometimes also G and g, or f. 449-50.

Tinning the metals, and washing them with lead, zinc, etc. 450-1.

Applicable to tome few of the metals only, and which in general require no flux.

Iron and brass, etc., are sometimes burned, or united by partial fusion, by pouring very hot metal over or around thorn, d. 452-4.

Lead is united without solder, by pouring on red-hot lead, and employing a red-hot iron, d, e, 452, and also by the autogenous process, pages 454-6.

Alloys and their mlting heats

No

1.

1 Tin,

25 Lead

.....

548 Fahr.

2.

1 -

10 -

.....

541 -

3.

1 -

5 -

...

511 -

1.

1 -

3 -

....

452 -

5.

1 -

3 -

...

441 -

6

1 -

1 -

....

370 -

7

1 1/2-

1 -

...

334 -

8.

3 -

1 -

....

340 -

9.

3 -

1 -

...

3SS -

10.

4 -

1 -

..

385 -

11.

5 -

1 -

...

378 -

12.

6 -

1 -

....

381 -

12

4 Lead,

4Tin,

1 Bismuth

320 -

14

3 -

3 -

1 - .

310 -

15

2 -

3 -

1 - .

393 -

16.

1 -

1 -

1 - .

354 -

17.

3 -

1 -

3 - .

236 -

18.

3 -

3 -

3 -

202 -

Punas.

A. Borax. 442.

B. Sal-ammoniac, or mur.of ammonia. 416-7. C Muriate, or chloride of zincc. 448-7.

D. Common resin.

E. Venice Turpentine. P. Tallow. 445.

G. Gallipoll oil, a common sweet oil. 450.

Modes or APPLYING HEAT.

a. Naked Ore. 436.7.

6. Hollow furnace or muffle. 437.

c Immersion in melted solder. 4474.

d. Melted solder or metal poured on. 445-452.

e. Hasted Iron not tinned. 445.

f. Heated copper tool, tinned. 443-435.

t. Blowpipe name. 4J7 to 441,443,449, 434.

h. Flame alone, generally alcohol.

i. Stream of heated air. 449.

Note. - By the addition of 3 parts of mercury to No. 18 it melts at 132° F., and may be used for anatomical injection and for stopping teeth.

* The table by H. GAULTHIER DE CLAUBRY, from which the present extract is derived, enumerates 103 different alloys intended to be used for the safety-plugs of steam boilers, in order that the fusion of the plug, and the consequent escape of the water, may occur when the steam exceeds any predetermined preasure,dependent on thermometric temperature. See Le Dictionnaine de l'Industric Manufacture Commercials et Agricole; par A. Baudrimont, Blanquiaine et autres. Paris, 1833. Vol. I. p. 338.

The 18 proportions here given include the extremes of the original, sad being arranged so that the tin commences at the minimum and ends at the maximum, the temperatures form two reversed series. No. 7 being the lowest unless bismuth is present. No. 5 is the " Plumber's Sealed Solder," which is assayed after the manner of pewter, (see p. 384.) and is then stamped by an officer of the Plumbers' Company. The table appears to be particularly useful as regards the pewter alloys and their appropriate solders; but it should be observed that the temperatures, where comparable, are a few degrees lower than those given by English authorities.