Spring or jointed clamps of the several forms, figs. 849 to 857, are also made. Fig. 849 represents two stout rectangular pieces of metal, united by two springs which pass on the sides of the vice-screw; these open to a considerable distance, and from the flexibility of the springs, readily adapt themselves either to thick or thin pieces.

The clamp, fig. 850, is made in two pieces of cast or wrought iron, jointed like a wide door hinge, and with a spring to separate the two parts to a small extent; this clamp has a piece of soft steel or iron attached to each half, to make a fine close mouth, suitable to delicate works and thin plates.

Fig. 851, is a narrow spring clamp made of one piece of steel, to which are attached pieces of wood or brass, that may be renewed when worn out of shape; the clamp, fig. 852, is made of one piece of steel, and formed with a crease to hold small wires horizontally; 853 and 854 are detached clamps, one plain, the other with an angular notch, that serve for holding round and other pieces vertically; 852 and 853 are each useful in holding round bars whilst they are being tapped, and not unfrequently their inner edges are cut with file teeth, after which they are hardened and tempered. As shown in fig. 855, some of the vice-clamps are made with jaws inclined at about 30 degrees to the perpendicular, to serve for holding chamfer bars for slides, and various bevilled works; these clamps have the effect of placing the chamfered edge nearly horizontal, which latter is the most convenient position for the act of filing.

Fig. 856 are the long sloping clamps, consisting of two pieces of wood bevilled at their extremities, and united by an external strap of sheet iron or steel, which is riveted to them; should they fail to spring open sufficiently, a stick is thrust between the two parts, as shown by the dotted lines; fig. 857 are upright wooden clamps, which are forked so that the tails proceed vertically, one on each side of the screw of the vice. The sloping wood clamps commonly used by gun-makers, are made long enough to rest upon the floor, and when the one end of the gun-barrel is pinched between them, the other end is supported either by a vertical prop, called a horse, or by a horizontal wooden horse, fixed to the bench at about the same height as the jaws of the vice.

Wooden clamps, although of great convenience, are open to a drawback that is sometimes acutely felt, as when small pieces are briskly tiled whilst held in wooden clamps, Owing to the slow conducting power of the wood, the works become so hot as to he inconvenient to be held in the lingers, but which is continually required, as it necessary at short intervals to remove the work from the vice, for the purpose of testing, by the straight edge square, or other measuring instruments, the progress made. Sometimes the work is grasped between slips of leather or card, that are simply held to the vice by the penetration of its teeth. Leather and card are, however, partly open to the same objection as wood clamps, from which the metal clamps, owing to their superior power of conducting heat, are nearly free.