104.   General Rule. - At the beginning of outlines, the first stem of which is an r, sh, or / stem, unless the result will be a difficult or awkward word-form, the following rule is applied:

I.   If the word begins with a vowel-sound, the down-stroke is used.

II.   If the word does not begin with a vowel-sound, the upstroke is used.

105.   Exceptions. - The exceptions to this rule are covered by the three following paragraphs (106 to 108):

106.   Use of Initial Er and Ree. - Without regard to the rule, the downstroke Er is always used before Em and Hay, and the upstroke Ree is always used before Tee, Dee, Chay, Jay, Ef, Vee, Ith, and Thee.

Examples of the rule and the exceptions:


107. Use of Initial Ish and Shee. - Without regard to the rule, the downstroke Ish is used before all of the stems excepting Ith and Thee, before which two stems upstroke Shee is used. Before Tee, Dee, and Lee both Ish and Shee are used, as follows: When vowels follow both consonants, as in shady, shallow, Shee is used; otherwise, Ish is used (see shade, Ashley.) Examples:


108. Use of Lee and El. - Either Lee or El is used before all of the horizontal stems and Lee and Ree, according as the rule (104) directs; but Lee is always used before all of the other stems, without regard to the rule. Examples:


Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

109. Rope, repay, rub, herb, ark or arc, rug. Rage, urge, reed or read or Reid, rood or rude, wrath, wreathe, review. Arm, rhyme, roam or Rome, ream. Shop, shake, sherry, shove, Shem, chateau, shady. Lick, ilk, lucky, leg, Lena, lame, alum, limb, laying. Ledge, alto, lead, loud, lip, lobby, loathe, lathe, life, love, lassie, lazy, liar, leeway, lull, lily.