247. Definition. - A stem is said to be "modified " when it is made either one-half its ordinary length or twice its ordinary length.
248. Halving Principle. - Halving the length of a stem to add something to its signification, is called the "Halving Principle."
249. Lengthening Principle. - Doubling the length of a stem to add something to its signification, is called the " Lengthening Principle."
250. Order of Reading. - Consonant sounds that are added to any stem by means of either principle of modification, Halving or Lengthening, are always read after the stem and its vowel-signs, and after its final-hook, if it have one. It is the very last part of the word to be sounded. Hence, if a word ends with a vowel-sound, its outline cannot terminate with a modified stem.