318.   Rule for Ens-Stems. - Stems of the Ens-series are never joined before straight stems, and before curved stems only when the junction will permit the circle to be turned on the back of the curve (see prancing, "Johnsonian). In most cases either the hook and circle must be distinctly formed (see dispensatory), or else the consonant n must be written with its stem-sign (see density).

319.   Rule for Sper-Stems. - Stems of the Sper-series are not often joined after other stems, because usually in the middle of words it is easier to indicate both the circle and the Er-hook than the circle without the hook (see execration). There are, however, a few outlines of this dass, in the middle of which it is better to turn the circle so as to imply the hook (see disagree).



Reading Exercise.



Writing Exercise.

Chains, dines, opens, gains, tokens, turns, inference, blackens [darkens], clearance, trains, glance, twins, attends, kinds, torrents, painters [tenders], renders, plants, stains, distance, substance, seconds, splints, splendors, chances, glances, danced, bounced, rinsed, glanced, punster. Stray, cedar, spry, strike, spring, scrape, strength, struggle, sprain, suppression, sacrifice, straight, secretly, strains, sister, stopper, pouncing, ransom, discretion, prosper, express.

320. License in Use of Implied-Hook Forms. - In the formation of the outlines of quite a number of words, some of the component parts of which taken separately would be written with stems of the Ens or Sper series, it is permitted that those parts be joined together, or to other stems, to make such word-outlines, although by so joining them their circles lose the implied-hook power, and become simple s-circles again. Sometimes the n will disappear, sometimes the r, and in a few cases both the n and r. In this way we write the words transpose, proscribe, and transgress with the outlines of traspose, proskibe, and trasgess. Examples:


Remark. Write in accordance with 320 and the above illustrations the following words: transpire, transport, transparent, transmit, transmission, transmutation, translucent, chancery, chancellor, counselor, Pennsylvania, dispensary, transgression, transcribe, transcription. It is better to use the stem N in writing the following words and their derivatives: transfuse (Tr-Ns-Fz), transfix, transi-tory, chancel, pencil, council, etc.