337.   Definition of Prefix. - A prefix is a phonographic sign placed at the beginning of an outline (either joined or detached) which is used with more than its ordinary signification.

338.   Definition of Suffix. - A suffix is a phonographic sign placed at the finish of an outline (either joined or detached) which is used with more than its ordinary signification.

339.   "Com," "Cum," or "Con."— When a word commences with either com, cum, or con, its outline is generally abbreviated by omitting the consonant-signs of this syllable, and simply writing the rest of the outline in the most convenient way. The omitted syllable is. however, usually indicated in one or the other of the following ways:

I. By placing a light dot near the beginning and in line with the first stem of the abbreviated outline; thus,—


II. By simply writing the abbreviated form, without the dot, close to the outline of the next preceding word; thus,—


This latter mode is called "indication by proximity."

Remark. It is entirely optional with the phonographer which mode of indication he will use; and one may be employed at one time, and at other times the other mode may be adopted, according to which best suits the occasion.

340. In the Middle of Words any of these syllables, com, cum, con, etc., and also the syllable cog, may be indicated by proximity; thus,—


341. And sometimes, in the middle of words, even proximity itself is omitted, and the latter part of the outline joined to the first, without removing the pen from the paper; thus,—


342. "Cog" at the Beginning of Words. - Although the syllable cog, in the middle of words, is indicated by proximity (339, 340), yet, at the beginning o' words, it is never, like com and con, expressed by the dot, but is always written in full. In words commencing with cogn, if the first three letters are pronounced kog, as in cognomen, the syllable is written with Kay-Gay; if the entire combination cogn is pronounced kon, as in the word cognizance (as pronounced by some), it is written with the sign Ken.

Remark. It will be noted that the syllables com and con are indicated by the dot, regardless of whether com is pronounced kom, as in combination, or kum, as in company; or whether con is pronounced kon, as in condemn, kun, as in constable, or kong, as in congress.

343. Full Outlines Sometimes Best. - When a word begins with con followed by t (cont), the use of the half-length Kent will sometimes give a better outline than will come from using either the dot or proximity. See the outlines of the words contour, contiguity, continent, etc

Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

344.  Commit, convey, compel, confine, contain, condition, competition, convention, component, composure, communicate, compete, compatible, combined, confound, compose, concise, combustion, composition, comply, control, compliment, compromise, conclusion, congressional, conversation, conclude, complaint or complained, compartment, constancy, consent, consist, construe (accented on first syllable); reconstruction, unconsciously incumbrance, unconditional, circumlocution. (343) Contagious, contents, contused, contortion (-.Rshn), contiguous, continental.

345.    Straight Breves and Proximity. - The breves for a, and, I, of, the, and he may be written close to the beginning of a word-outline from which initial com or con has been omitted, to indicate respectively a com or con, and com or con, I com or con, etc.

346.   Has no Position of its Own. - In such cases the breve-sign does not have any position of its own, but accommodates itself to the position of the outline which it precedes.

347.   The straight breve-words before com or con are written as follows:

A or and com or con, always by Poid. I or of com or con, always by Roid. The com or con, always by Choid. He com or con, by Toid or Koid. 348. Breve Written First. - The breve-sign should always be written before making the outline of the succeeding word. Examples:


Remark. "Ing." - The "Ing-dot," the use of which is explained at 148, under the definitions given is properly a suffix, the same as the dot for com is a prefix.

Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

To-avoid confusion and conduce to-the comfort of all in-the conference, members of-the commission should confine themselves to communications that-have direct connection with-the subject-matter concerning-which they-are convened. With one consent they concluded to consult together and-then act in concert. Confer with-your companions and-then convey to-the Convention, when-it convenes again, your conclusions about reconstruction. / concur with everything contained in-his comments on-the constitutionality of-the Consolidation Act; it-was a commendable and uncommonly fine contribution to-the arguments. The compensation of-the Commissioner is small in comparison with some incomes in commercial life. On-the completion of the work-of reconstructing the old Congregational Church, the contractor, after consulting in-a conversational way with some-of-the congregation, and in-consideration of certain mutual concessions, concluded to-reduce his bill.

349.   "Ble " and "Bly."—Whenever, in writing the terminal syllables ble and bly, the regular form Bel cannot be readily joined, as occurs in writing such words as attainable, provable, fashionable, reversible, etc., the simple stem Bee may be used instead. Then, if ever complete outlines be required, El may be added to the Bee in writing ble, and Lee may be added in writing bly. See outlines of sensible and sensibly.

350.    "Bleness," "Fulness," "Iveness," and " Lessness." - These terminal syllables, in such words as teachableness, usefulness, combativeness, carelessness, etc., may be abbreviated by writing them respectively with detached Bess, Fess, Vess, and Lees.

351. "Ever" and "Soever" in Compounds. -These words, when not standing alone, are written as follows:

352.   Every at the beginning of words, as in everlasting, evermore, etc., is always written in full (Ver).

353.   At the end of words, if not immediately preceded by the syllable so, the termination ever is written with either the Vee-hook or the stem Vee.

354.    Soever is usually written with breve-s and the stem Vee (Sev). But if the primitive word ends with breve-s, stem Ess is used instead of the circle. See outlines of whencesoever and whosesoever.

355.    Position. - The outline of the first word of. every compound ending in ever should be written in its proper position, without regard to the location of the primary accent. See outlines of wherever, however, and forever.

356.  " For," " Fore," and " Form."— The syllables for and fore at the beginning of words, and the syllable form at the end and in the middle of words, as in the words forbid, forever, foreknowledge, foreshadow, perform, platform, uniformity, etc., are frequently written with the stem Ef, either joined or disjoined.

357.    "Magna," "Magne," and "Magni."-At the beginning of such words as magnanimity, magnetic-, magnificent, etc., the first two syllables are usually written with the stem Em, disjoined and placed over and near the commencement of the rest of the outline. This latter part of the outline is written in the position required by the accented vowel.

358.    "Mental-ly," " Mentality."— The terminations mental-ly, mentality, in such words as sacramental, supplemental, instrumental-ly, instrumentality, etc., may be written by the stem Ment, disjoined and placed after and near the preceding part of the outline.

359.   Position. - The outlines of these words, except that of instrumentality, are written in the position of the primary word.

360.    "Ology" and "Alogy."—The terminations ology and alogy, as in the words theology, pathology, physiology, mineralogy, etc., may be written with the stem Jay, either joined or detached, according to convenience. Sometimes the full outline is used, as in the words etymology, philology, tautology, etc.

361.   "Self" at the Beginning of Words. - In such compounds as self-defense, self-esteem, self-same, etc., self may be written with breve-s on the line; the rest of the outline being placed close after it, and in its own proper position. The prefix un before self may be written with the En-curl in writing the word unselfish and derivatives.

362.   "Self" at the End of Words may be written with the full outline, Slee-Ef, or with the breve-s, usually joined, but occasionally detached and placed close to the preceding part of the outline.

363.   "Selves," final, is usually written with the large circle (breve-sez) joined.

364.   " Ship."— The suffix ship may be written with the stem Ish, and either joined or detached, according to convenience.

Shus. - See new rule, page 202, paragraph 449.

365.   "With."—The syllable with, wherever it occurs in a word, is written with the stem Dhee. In writing the word forthwith the stem Ith may be used.

366. "Worthy," wherever it occurs in a word, is written with its abbreviation, Thoid-Dhee.

Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

Lamentable, attainable, exceptionable, defensible, permissible-y, forcible-y, reversible, invincible, serviceableness, salableness, favor. ableness, joyfulness, painfulness, doubtfulness, hurtfulness, usefulness, fruitfulness, combativeness, destructiveness, talkativeness, fearlessness, worthlessness, heedlessness, helplessness, evermore, whichever, whichsoever [wheresoever], whithersoever, whoever, forbidding, forbearance, forget, formality, misinformed, uniform, foreknew, forethought, magnetize, magnify, magnitude, supplemental, sacramental, instrumental, phraseology, pathology, doxology, etymology [written in full], self-evident, self-love, self-confidence, myself, yourself, ourselves, courtship, lordship, workmanship, unship [in full], withdraw, withstand, withstood, wherewith, worthiness, blameworthy, unworthy.

Remark. The following Writing Exercise on the subject of Phrenology has been selected because it brings in quite a number of the more important suffixes that have just been explained. In the early days of Phonography in this country the reporting of "characters," from the dictation of professional phrenologists, was one of the frequent employments of shorthand writers.

Writing Exercise

Subject : "Phrenology."

367. Vitativeness Strong. Set a very high estimate upon life and will resist disease to the last; with the other propensities strong, will manifest great courage in self-preservation. - Executiveness very Strong. Are extremely aggressive, active, energetic ; can't be still; delight in doing, undertaking, dispatching work, business, study, and whatever is to be done. - Acquisitiveness Good. Are anxious to accumulate, industrious in business, sufficiently economical; cannot bear extravagance. - Secretiveness very Strong. Are very reserved, sly, non-committal; too secretive to be strictly honest. With moderate Conscience are sly, tricky, foxy, untrustworthy. -Amativeness Strong. Are very loving, warm-hearted, and affectionate ; a great admirer of personal beauty as well as intellectual attainments in the opposite sex. - Inhabitiveness very Strong. Have an extremely strong attachment to one place ; cannot think of changing; prefer the old home with all its disadvantages to moving to a more favored spot with many improvements. - Constructiveness very Strong. Are extremely fond of making things ; have great natural mechanical ingenuity; want to take everything to pieces to study its mechanism ; are always contriving and constructing plans of some form. - Mirthfulness very Strong. Are extremely fond of the ridiculous ; are always laughing and making others laugh. - Agreeablencss very Strong. Are extremely winning, bland, and agreeable ; always wear a pleasant smile; say the most disagreeable things in a pleasant manner; are polite and courteous to all.