96.   The learner will recall the fact that the consonant r has two stems assigned to it, namely, and , each having a name of its own, Er and Ree respectively ; and that when standing alone, the stem is always written downward, and the stem always upward, being then called Ish and Lee. Also, that when joined to other signs both the stems and may be written either upward or downward ; the name of the former, when struck upward, becoming Shee instead of Ish, and the name of the latter, when struck downward, becoming El instead of Lee (71).

97.   The following rules and directions are prescribed to regulate the use of these downstroke and upstroke stems.

98.   Use of Er and Ree not Joined. - When an r stem is the only one in a word, either Er or Ree is used, in accordance with the following rules:

I. If there is a vowel-sound before the r, whether there is one after it or not, the downstroke Er is used; thus,—


II. If there is a vowel-sound after the r, and none before it, the upstroke Ree is used; thus,—


99. R, SH, and L Stems Joined. - When joined in outlines of two or more stems, the proper use of these downward and upward stems is determined in accordance with certain principles which will now be given.