34. In the previous lesson only two vowels were given to the learner to use, namely, the two long-vowels (a and 6) of the second position. It will now be necessary to learn the four other long-vowels - two belonging to the first-place and two to the third-place - and also the diphthongs. But before any of them can be used properly, word-position must be understood. In order that the two vowels already presented may appear in their proper places among the other vowels, the instruction in regard to them will be here repeated. Before proceeding farther, however, paragraphs 11 and 12 should be reviewed.
35. The six long-vowels are written with heavy dots and dashes as follows:
1. The sound of ah (a in art), with a heavy dot in the first-place.
2. The sound of a (a in age), with a heavy dot in the second-place.
3. The sound of ē (e in eve), with a heavy dot in the third-place.
4. The sound of aw (a in all), with a heavy dash in the first-place.
5. The sound of 6 (ō in ode), with a heavy dash in the second-place.
6. The sound of 6b (00 in ooze), with a heavy dash in the third-place.
36. Or, reversing the order of the foregoing rule, it may be stated briefly as follows:
1. A heavy dot written to a stem and put opposite the beginning, middle, or finish of the stem, stands for either ah, a, or ē, according to its place.
2. A heavy dash written to a stem and put opposite the beginning, middle, or finish of the stem, stands for either aw, 6, or oo, according to its place.
37. These rules are illustrated in the following table :
38. Names of the Long-Vowels. - The names of the long-vowels are their sounds,— ah, a,ē, aw, ō, oo. In Webster's dictionary the sounds are all indicated by single letters marked thus: a, a, ē, a, ō, o. These marks are called "diacritics," and every student should learn their use.