129.   Of the large number of words used in speaking and writing English, fully one-half is made up by the repetition of certain common words such as the, and, of, to, in, a, for, it, be, but, at, they, etc., numbering less than one hundred and fifty in all. Most of these words are so briefly written in this system of phonography by their regular full outlines that no other provision is required for them. But there are several which, if the shorthand writer were obliged to always write them in full, would cause an unnecessary consumption of time and labor. For that reason they are provided with shortened phonographic forms, as illustrated by the following examples :


130.   "Abbreviations " - "Contractions" - "Word-Signs." - Outlines of this sort are usually called "Abbreviations." They are also called " Contractions." And it is sometimes convenient to speak of them, especially the single-stem signs, as " Word-signs."

131.   Not Vocalized. - The abbreviations of phonography as a rule should not be vocalized ; not even by the beginner.

132.   Abbreviations out of Position. - It will be noticed that the abbreviations for a few words, as which, where, were, etc., are written in other positions than those required by their vowels. This is done so that in unvocalized phonography they will not be mistaken for the outlines of other words. When a word usually written with an abbreviation is preceded by to, if put in the fourth position, in some cases it is better to use its full outline, as, to-advertise Dv4-R-Tz, to-change CH4-N-J, to-charge CH4-R-J.

133. Other Outlines out of Position. -There are also a few other single-stem words, whose outlines are not abbreviated at all, but yet, for the reason stated in the last paragraph, are written out of their proper positions, as the words do, go, any, etc. Although the outlines of these words are not abbreviations, still, for convenience of reference they are included in the list. So also are words which are written entirely with vowel-signs.