217. Either l or r may be added after any curved stem by an initial-hook, the hook being made large for / and small for r. Both hooks are written on the inner side of the curve. Examples:


Reading Exercise.



Writing Exercise.

Flee, free, awful, offer, author, easel, flood, Friday, thrive, flung, energy, shrub, flurried, French, joyful, dinner, bushel, final, shiver, manner, lover, woeful, frighten, freeman, fraction, ownership, pleasure, flavor, grammar, floral, framer, thrown, ranger [granger].

218.   The Names of the Er-hook Stems are as follows : Cher, Jer, Ter, Der, Per, Ber, Ker, Ger (G hard), Reer, El'r, Yer, Ther or Ith'r, Dher, Fer, Ver, Ner, Ing'r, Sheer, Ish'r, Zher, Es'r, Zer, Er'r, Wer, Mer, Her, Leer. The names of Er-hook stems which also have final hooks, as the outlines of brain, brief, crave, Grecian, traitor, etc., are formed thus: Bren, Bref, Krev, Gre'shun, Tretter, etc.

219.   The Names of the El-hook Stems are as follows : Chel, Jel, Tel, Del, Pel, Bel, Kel, Gel (G hard), Reel, El'l, Yel, Thel or Ith'l, Dhel, Fel, Vel, Nel, Ing'l, Sheel, Ish'l, Zhel, Es'l, Zel, Erl, Wel, Mel, Hel, Leel. The names of El-hook stems which also have final hooks, as the outlines of clean, blown, bluff, blotter, flown, etc., are formed thus : Klen, Blen, Blef, Bletter, Flen, etc.

220.   Breve-hay before Initial-hooks. - Breve-hay may be joined before any stem with initial-hook, and in practice the following plan is found to be best: Before any downward stem with initial-hook, use Toid; before any rightward stem with initial-hook, use Koid; before Mel, use Up-Toid. Examples:


221. Stenotypy. - Phonographic characters and outlines maybe represented by the ordinary printing letters in the following manner :

1.  All stem-signs are represented by capital letters,—(a) down-strokes and horizontals by ROMAN CAPITALS, and (b) upstrokes by ITALIC CAPITALS.

2.   All other signs that are used for consonants, as breves, hooks, etc., as well as the signs for the simple vowels, are represented by lower-case or small letters. The diphthongs, however, are represented by small capitals.

3.   A hyphen between two stenotypes indicates that the signs they represent are to be joined together in writing.

Remark. It will be noted that the stems Shee, Lee, and Ree, which are upstroke stems slanting to the right, are represented by capitals that slant to the right (SH, L, R). See Alphabet, page x., fourth and eighth columns, and paragraph 51. The double letters ZH and DH are used respectively for the heavy mates of Ish and Ith, and TH is given exclusively to Ith.

Examples: CH, J, T, D, P, B, K, G, R, L (El as in fail), Y, TH, DH, F, V, N, NG, SH (Shee as in bushy), SH, ZH, S, Z, R, W, M, H, L (Lee as in lay, follow); Pn, Fn, Tf, Rv, Kshn, Nshn, Vzhn, Ptr, Rthr, Pl, Pr, Fl, Fr, Kw ; B-K, N-M, Pn-NG, Dv-N, P-Pr; h-M, h-D, w-CH, w-K, y-M, y-TH ; Pa {pay), Ma (ma), Boi (bo)), Bra-K (break), Bl-oM (bloom).