222.   An ordinary vowel-sign— dot, dash, or diphthong-angle — placed after a stem with an initial-hook, is read after both stem and hook (212). Hence it follows that in writing such words as toil, tire, pail, power, fail, fire, etc., their outlines, to be capable of being vocalized in the usual way, must be formed of stem-signs, and the El and Er hooks cannot be used.

223.   But, for the purpose of securing briefer and better outlines for a considerable number of words, some of which are of frequent recurrence, by the use of initial-hook stems, even when there is a distinct vowel-sound between the consonants they represent, a method of special vocalization is provided, by which such vowels may be indicated so as to be read between a stem and its initial-hook. It is as follows:

I. The Six Dot-Vowels are written with a small circle put in the three regular vowel-places at the side of the initial-hook stem; being usually written before the stem for the long-vowels, ah, ā, ē , and after the stem for the short-vowels, ă,ĕ,ĭ. But if, because of the form of the outline, it is more convenient to write the circle on one side of a stem than on the other, it may be placed on that side, whether the vowel is long or short. See the word cheerful, in which the circle is placed after the stem for the long-vowel ē.

II. Dash-Vowels and Diphthongs are written with their ordinary signs, and in their usual positions, but are struck across or at the end of the initial-hook stem.



Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

224. Carbon, shell, mark, church, more, yawl, shore, harm, Norway, journal, harbor [Harper], normal, curb, lurch, torture, paragraph, sharp, Fulton, full, termination, valve, hark, attorney, marble.

Remark. The primary use of the initial-hooks for l and r is to represent these two liquids when they occur after certain consonants with which they blend and form double-consonants, which are uttered by a single effort of the voice. They are so employed under the following circumstances : (i) When there is a vowel-sound heard after the liquid, but none immediately before it,— as in the words play, pry, tree, clay, black, grope, betray, flee, fray, throw, shred, defray, apply, ugly, only, kingly, etc., and, (2) when there is no vowel-sound heard after the liquid in the same syllable, and the only vowel-sound heard immediately before it is the slight sound that is produced by or during the sounding of the two blended consonants themselves,— as in the words apple, able, addle, odor, acre, ogle, double, tunnel, neighbor, favor, bushel, etc. Therefore, the employment of initial-hooks for / and r when distinct vowel-sounds immediately precede them, instead of the stem-signs for these consonants, in the manner just explained, is a matter of license merely, and as such is subject to considerations of expediency only, and is to be regarded altogether from the standpoint of the practical shorthand writer and his needs ; and so it would seem that no general rule governing their use is possible.

Attempts have been made, however, by teachers of phonography to devise rules which will enable one to always determine when, in writing words of this class, the El and Er hooks should and should not be used, but heretofore without satisfactory results. Either the rules have not been in harmony with the practice of experienced phonographers, or the exceptions have been so numerous that the rules were of no value. The reason of this is that there are so many conflicting elements in the problem that it is impossible to make a rule that will cover even a majority of the cases. Each stem is a law unto itself. If the stem-sign of a liquid does not join easily after a particular stem, then the hook is apt to be used,— otherwise not. Thus, to illustrate, the downstroke Er does not make a good junction with Kay, so in nearly all outlines containing the consonants kr, with intervening vowel-sound, the hook is used (Kr); while, on the other hand, the same stem, Er, does make a good junction with Tee, and hence we find that the hook is sparingly used for tr when there is an intervening vowel. And, besides, it may be added, oftentimes the necessity of avoiding the use of like outlines for conflicting words has something to do with determining when the hooks may and may not be so used.

The author is of the opinion, therefore, that the student will find it easier to learn separately the various word-outlines coming under the head of " special vocalization," than to attempt to apply to them any rule or set of rules that has as yet been suggested. To illustrate what is meant in the foregoing statement, and to assist the learner in the work of memorizing outlines, the following list of words is given, with directions as to the proper way to write them: Use CHl in 'challenge, child, children, chilblain,'— CH-L in ' chill, chilled, chilling,'— CH-L in 'chilly, chilliness,'— CHr in ' charitable, charm, charter, chairman, cheerful, chirp, church, churn,'— CH-R in ' char, chart, chair, cheer, chore,'— CH-R in ' chary, cheery, chirrup,'— Jr in ' jargon, German, germain, George, journal, journey, jurisdiction,'—J-R in 'jar, jeer,'— Tl in ' tell, telegraph, telephone, telescope, till (prep, or conj.), told, tolerable,'— T-L in ' tall, tale, tile, till ( v. or n.), toil, toll, tool,'— Tr in ' term, terminate, torment, toward, towards, torture, turtle,'— T-R in 'tar, tare, tire, tore, tier,'— T-R in 'tarry, terrible, torch, torpid, tory, tariff,'— Dr in ' dark, dear (in phrases), direct, dirk, dormant, duration, during,'— D-R in ' dare, dear (not in phrases), deer, dirt, door,'—D-R in 'darn, dearth, derange, derrick, dirty, Doric,'— Pl in ' palpable, palpitation, pilgrim, political,'—P-L in ' pal, Paul, pile, pole, pool, pull,'— P-L in ' paltry, pulley, pillage,'— Pr in ' paragraph, parcel, parliament, parlor, partial, particle, partner, per, perceive, perfect, pervert, perhaps, perjury,'— P-R in 'par, pare, pour, purr, poor,'—P-R in ' pure, parch, parry, perish,'— Kl in ' calamity, calculation, call, calumny, Calvin, coal, cold, collect, college, column,'—

K-L in ' coil, keel, kill,'— Kr in ' car, care, core, cure, occur, cornice, corporation, cur, curb, curve, curtain,'— K-R in ' carry, curry, corn, current, curly,'— Gl in 'galvanic, gold, Gould, gulf,'— G-L in ' Gaul, guile, gale, goal, gull,'—G-Z in 'galley, gully, gallop,' — Gr in 'garden, gargle, garland, garlic, garment, garnet, garnish, gorgeous, gormand, guard, guardian, regard, gurgle,'— G-R in 'gear, gore,'—G-R in 'garret, garrison, geared, gored, gorge, Gerry, gory,' — Rl in ' rail, roll, real, rule, realm, realty, relapse, relative, relevant, relief, rely,'— R-L in ' roil, royal,'—R-L in ' rally, relay,'— Yl in ' yawl, Yale, yell, yowl, yield, Yule,'— Yr in 'yarn, yard, yearn, yerk, yore,'— THr in 'thermometer, third, thirst, Thursday,'— DHr in ' their, there,'— Fl in ' full, fully, philosophy, fulcrum, fulgent,' — F-L in 'fall, file, foil, foul, fail, fell, feel, fill,'— F-L in 'fallow, follow, folly, fulsome,'— Fr in ' farther, far (in phrases), farthing; ferment, fertile, fervent, forge, forger, former, formidable, fortify, fortune, furbish, furnish,'—F-R in ' far, fare, fire, fore, fur, fear, farm,'—F-R in ' farrow, farina, ferry, ferocious, fury, fern,'— Vl in ' value, valve, velvet, volcano, volume, vulgar,'— V-L in ' vile, vale, veal, ville,'—V-L in 'valley, volley, vilify, villany, volition,'— Vr in ' very, verb, verbatim, verge, verify, virtue, vortex,'— Nl in 'null, nullity, nullify, analogy, analytic, enlighten, only, enlist,'— N-L in 'Nile, nail, kneel, knell, knoll,'—N-L in ' Nelly, newly, inlay, annually,'— Nr in ' narcotic, narrative, near, nerve, enrich, nor, normal, north, nourish, nurse, nurture,'— N-R in ' nigher, ne'er, newer,'— SHl in 'shawl, shell, shelf, shoulder, shield,'— SHr in 'share, sharp, shark, sheriff, shirk, shirt, shore, short,'— Sr in ' assort, assortment, assert, assertion,'— Wl in 'while, whale, wheel (234), awhile,'— Wr in ' war, ward, wear, wore, warm, warn, wire, word, work, worm,'— Ml in 'male, mail (n.), mile, malpractice, maltreatment, melancholy,'— M-L in 'mail (v.), mailed, mailing, mill, maul,'— Mr in ' marble, mark, marshal, mercenary, merchant, more, morgue, morn, mortgage, mourn, murder, murmur, mere, merely,'— M-R in 'mar, mare, mire,'— M-R in ' margin, March, marsh,'— Hr in 'harbor, hard, hare, heark, harm, harmony, heart, hire, hurt,'—■ Toid-R in 'harness, hardy, hearty, harp, harvest,'—Zr in ' lard, lark, learn, lord, lurch, lurk,'—Z-R in ' lower, liar, leer, allure.'