264. Half-Length Stems. - For the three positions a half-length stem always rests on the same level as its full length; thus,—


265. Lengthened Stems. - For the three positions a lengthened stem always begins at the same level that its single length does; thus,—


Remark. This rule does not interfere with the direction at 263, II., that downward lengthened stems in the first position should rest on the line. Both rules may be observed by making the lengthened stems a trifle shorter than double length.

266.   Hooks Made Larger. - All of the hooks, both large and small (particularly the former), on lengthened stems, are made somewhat larger than the corresponding hooks on stems of ordinary length


267.   Special Vocalization with Lengthened Stems. - When a diphthong occurs between the two consonants added by lengthening, it may be written by striking its sign across the lengthened stem; thus, 174 entire.

268. Exceptional Use of Halving Principle. - While the gen-eral rule is that the Halving Principle should not be employed to denote a final t or d in the outlines of words that end with vowel-sounds (250), as petty, mighty, gaudy, pretty, Brady, etc., yet there are a few words of that class as to which, in order to secure an increase in brevity and speed, the phonographer is allowed to violate the rule and use half-lengths when there are final vowels. The principal words of this sort are liberty (L3-Brt), majority (M-Jrt1), quality (Kw-Lt1), equality (Kw-Lt3), nobody (N-Bd2), and anybody (N3-Bd). Of course, it is always proper to make the outlines of these words according to the rule, ending them with T or D, instead of half-lengths, should the writer prefer so to do. Furthermore, it must be remembered that if the final vowel must be indicated, the t or d must be written with its stem-sign, as you cannot write a vowel to anything but a stem.

Remark. The outline of equality is put in the third-position so that, in writing unvocalized phonography, the word will not conflict with quality.

Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

Fighter, voter, niter or neither (nīther), neuter, nature, shat ter, water, motor, mutter or mother, hotter, letter or leather, after, oyster, Easter, order, flatter, yonder, vender or venture, winter, hinder, offender, flounder, tender, pointer, banter, gander, render, laughter, filter (-Ltr), defender, entertain, thermometer, inventor, decanter, printer, grander, further, feature.

"modifications" in abbreviations and phrases.

269.    Half-Length Stems in Abbreviations. -

Each of the following abbreviations contains at least one half-length stem:


270.   Halving Principles in Phrases. - The words it the, to, and had may be added by Halving; thus,—


Remark 1. The phrase of-the, standing alone, is invariably written with Roid2-Choid (166, 167). And in the middle or at the end of phrases of-the is almost always written with either Roid-Choid or Choid-Roid ; but occasionally, because more convenient, it is written with half-length Vee. See the phrases most-of-the-time and one-of-the in the List of Phrases.

Remark 2. The adding of had by halving is only permitted in connection with the stem-signs of the personal pronouns he, we, you, they, and she. It is not safe to adopt it as a general principle. Its most frequent use is by the reporter in writing the phrases he-had, we-had, and you-had. But it is always proper, in all such phrases and everywhere, to write had-with the stem Dee ; he, we, and you in that case being written with their breve-signs. See 169, 170, and 173.

271.   Lengthening Principle in Phrases. - The words there, their, they-are, and other may be added by-Lengthening; thus,—


Remark. It is allowable to write of-their and of-other with lengthened Vee in the first-position ; but in writing the latter phrase, the vowel ŭ should be inserted. In fact, it is well to make a practice of inserting the vowel ŭ whenever other is added by lengthening. See the above phrases in the List of Phrases.

272.   "Not" and "Another."— The word not may be added by the En-hook and Halving; and the word another, by the En-hook and Lengthening; thus,—


273.   "Did."— The word did, when standing alone or beginning a phrase, or when preceded in a phrase only by the breve-sign for one of the pronouns I, he, we, or you, is always written with its abbreviation Dee3. In all other cases, when joined in a Dhrase, did is written with the half-length Ded.

274.   "That."— The word that, when standing alone or beginning a phrase, is always written with its abbreviation Thee1. But when joined to a preceding word that is always written with the half-length Dhet.

275.   "Old," "Older," etc. - In writing the word old and its derivatives, the initial vowel, 0, is joined at the beginning of the stem Lee, being struck downward in the direction of Bee ; thus, old, Boid2-Leed ; older, Boid2-Leeder, etc. In practice the vowel-sign may be made light (Poid2).

Remark. By prefixing the vowel-sign in writing old, older, etc., these words are distinguished in their outlines from late, lady, later, latter, and elder (L2-Dr).

276.  "Another," "Entire," "The-other," and " Hereafter."— Both the words another and entire are written with lengthened En in the first-position, and the phrase the-other is written with lengthened Thee in the third-position. Hereafter is written Rftr3.

Remark. The principle involved in the outline of hereafter, just given, namely, the employment of the Ef-hook and Lengthening principle to denote after, may be used in phraseography in writing such phrases as week-after, before-or-after, Saturday-afternoon, day-after-day, etc. See these examples in the List of Phrases.

Reading Exercise.



Writing Exercise.

Kit Mott the mate of-the yacht "Dot" has got the gout in-the right foot. I asked him if-it ached in-the night. He laughed and remarked that he thought it did. Ragged little Pat Merritt put a rabbit and-a cat in-his coat pocket, and also took a pet parrot and went up in-the garret and made a-great racket. But when-the par rot lit on-his pate Pat shut his left eye and shot for-the gate; and-as he got there he uttered a bad epithet, which made the refined and gentle madam of-the flat hit him on-the head with-a pint pot, and the cut hurt him so badly that he-had a fit which he did-not get over until midnight. Albert Pratt and Alfred Platt went to-see4 Robert and Richard Egbert in Kentucky in October. Hubert Hubbard played the part-of Hamlet at-the Detroit Theatre the-other night.

I-do-not-think that Leander Winter the inventor will ever attempt to hinder, delay, or defraud any creditor out-of his hard earned money. A terrible wind blew down the tent and-the thunder and lightning so frightened the crowd that-the meeting broke up and all went home for shelter, and did-not venture out again until Friday-afternoon. Mr. Hunt, the wonderful hunter of Huntington, went hunting Monday-afternoon and for a wonder killed one old hen, thinking he-had shot a partridge (Prt-). The young and tender children of Mr. Pindar now go to kindergarten (G-Rt-N) and-will remain-there hereafter;— they ought to-have gone-there before,