260.   "Tr," "Dr," "Thr," or "Ture" Added. -

The syllables ter, der, ther, and ture may each be added to any curved stem, whether simple or hooked, and to any straight stem with final-hook, by making the stem twice its ordinary length.

261.  The Names of the Lengthened Stems are Ishter, Zhetter, Ester or Esther, Zeeter, Erter or Erther, Wetter or Wĕther, Metter or Mĕther, Hetter or Hĕther, Leeter or Leether or Leeder, Elter, Yetter, Ithter, Dhetter, Fetter or Fĕther, Vetter, Enter or Enther, Ingter, Sheeter, Fender, Fletter, Fretter, Chenter, Renter, Renter or Render, etc. Examples:


262. Order of Reading Vowel-Sign. - A vowel-sign placed after a lengthened stem is read before the added tr, dr, or thr (250). Examples:


Remark. The principle of phonography which allows straight items with final-hooks to be lengthened to add tr, dr, thr, leads to an unimportant conflict with the outlines of a very few words, in which a straight stem is repeated, with a final-hook on the last stem, the hook-consonant being sounded last; as in the outlines of pippin, bobbin, baboon, tighten. Titan, Teuton, deaden, jejune, cocoon, Triton, Dryden, quicken, and Caucasian. But practically the words of the two classes never interfere with each other.

263. Positions of Lengthened Stems. - The positions of lengthened stems are as follows:

I.   Of horizontal lengthened stems, the same as the positions of single-length and half-length horizontals. See paragraphs 43 to 45 and 255.

II.   Of downward lengthened stems: First Position. - On the line.

Second Position. - Half of the stem above the line and half below.

Third Position. - One-third of the stem above the line and two-thirds below.

III.   Of upward lengthened stems:

First Position. - Commencing half a Tee-length above the line.

Second Position. - Commencing at the line.

Third Position. - Commencing half a Tee-length below the line.

Examples of downward and upward lengthened stems standing in the three different positions: