293. Loop for "st" or "zd."—Either st or zd may be added to the simple end of any stem by a small loop turned on the circle side.

294.   Name. - The small loop is called both "Breve-est" and "Steh." Its stenotype is "st" or "zd."

295.   Names of Stems with Breve-est are formed as follows: Chest, Best, Kest, Reest, Test, Nest, Elst, Leest, Erst, Ishest, Sheest; Stech, Stet, Steree, Ster, Stel, Stelee; Stepest, Stetest, Stekest, Stefest, etc.

296.   Size of Small Loop. - Breve-est should extend about one-third the length of the stem on which it is written.

297. Where Breve-est is Used. - The small loop may be used at the end, at the beginning, or in the middle of words. Examples:


Remark. When the consonants of a word consist of or begin with s-t-n, they are generally written with circle-s and stem T with N-hook, as in writing stone, stand (sTnd), stentor (sTntr), etc. The principal exceptions, in which the form loop-st and stem N (stN) is used, are the following words and their derivatives : stencil (stNs-L), stenography, sting, and stink.

298. Breve-s for Breve-est. - In a few instances, occurring in the middle of words, breve-s is substituted for breve-est, when the omitted consonant, in ordinary speech, is an imperfectly enunciated sound, and an improved outline is obtained by the change. See the last three words in each of the next reading and writing exercises.

Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

299. Taste, post, cast, rest, vest, west, most, last, attest, arrest, stage, stop, stag, store, stung, steel or steal, steady, sticky, noticed, taxed, invest, utmost, storm, stamp, pastry, vastly, posterity, distinction, priest, blessed (blest), closed, twist, druggist, embraced, journalist, crystal, spaced, sufficed, disgust, stolen, stupid, stoops, mostly, post-office, postpone.

Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

In August last Mr. Vest, our honest guest from-the (270) West, being aroused by-a (163) ghost, just stood aghast, his eyes (57) all moist, and raised his fist and said, "Avast! or /-am lost with all-the (270) rest!" The steady steed came to-a (163) stop at-the (270) stoop, and did-not (272) stir, but stood stock still until they took-him (169) to-the (270) stall. Stephen Stokes, a stalwart stenographer, raised a storm when-he (169) proposed to-stop (176) taking testimony and postpone the trial as-a (163) dishonest witness had testified to-a misstatement. The tempest burst upon our staging and destroyed the staircase in-spite of-our utmost efforts to-save (176) it. Posterity will justify those-who earnestly and honestly seek by sturdy industry, and not by extortion and stealing, to-make (177) and invest money.