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277. Two Sizes of Circles and Loops. - There are two sizes of circles and two of loops used in Phono graphy, being called respectively "Small Circle," "Large Circle," " Small Loop,"and "Large Loop"

Small Circle On Simple Stems.

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278. Circle for "S" or "Z." - A small circle joined at the finish of any stem adds either s or z. Joined at the beginning of a stem it adds s but not z. On straight stems that are struck downward, as Chay, Tee, Pee, etc., it is turned on the right side. On straight stems that are struck right-ward, as Kay, Gay, Ree, it is turned on the upper side. On curved stems it is turned on the inner side. It may also be turned on the inside of any hook; and is then made slightly elongated lengthwise of the hook. Examples:

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Remark. A brief rule for joining the circle to simple stems is the following : Write the circle on all consonant-stems, both straight and curved, on the side and in the place of the Shun and El Hooks.

279.   Order of Reading. - A circle at the beginning of an outline is read before everything else; a circle at the finish of an outline is read after everything else. Therefore, the circle cannot be used for s or z in such words as ask, lasso, rosy, etc., which either begin or end with a vowel.

280.   Name. - The name of the small circle is Iss. It is also called "Breve-ess" or "Breve-zee," according to which sound it stands for. These names are also printed "Breve-s" and "Breve-z." The stenotype of Iss is "s" or "z."

281.   Names of Stems with Breve-s. - Stems with the small circle attached are named Chess, Jess, Tess, Pess, Fess, Sech, Sef, etc., according as the circle is final or initial. The names that are not formed in the regular way with e are the following : Rees, Els, Ingz, Shees, Ishes, Ess-Iss, Zee-Iss, Lees, Iss-Ree, Iss-Yay, Iss-Shee, Iss-Ess, Iss-Zee, Sway, Iss-Hay, Slee.