85. A Straight Stem is Repeated by making it double its ordinary length; thus,—


86. A Curved Stem is Repeated by writing it twice without taking off the pen, making a sharp angle between the stems; thus, -


87. Joinings without Angles. -When stems are joined between which there is naturally little or no angle, no attempt should be made to make one, not even for the purpose of indicating where the first stem leaves off and the other begins ; thus,—


Key: Pee-Ess, Pee-En, Ess-Chay, Em-Pee, Ith-Pee, Lee-Kay, Ef-Kay, En-Ree, El-En. Ef-Er. Ef-Shee, En-Em, Shee-Lee, ErIsh. Em-En, Em-Ish, Em-Ess, Lee-Shee, Lee-Ish, Lee-Ess, Lee-Er. 88. One Light and One Heavy Stem. - If one of such stems is light and the other heavy, the shading should be so blended about the joining that there will be no perceptible point of division; thus. -


Key : Tee-Dee, Dee-Tee, Pee-Bee, Bee-Pee, Kay-Gay, Gay-Kay, Dee-Ish, Dee-Ef, Pee-Zee, Pee-Ing, Bee-Ess, Bee-En, Gay-Er, Ef-Gay, Vee-Kay, Em-Bee, Lee-Gay, El-Ing, Ith-Ing, Vee-Er, Vee-Shee, En-Hay, Ing-Em, Em-Zee, Em-Ing, Hay-Ish, Hay-En, Lee-Zhee, Lee-Zee, Lee-Way.

89.   Hay-Ess and Thee-En Exceptions. - In the outlines Hay-Ess and Thee-En, because of the liability of the shading of the first stems to run too far into the second stems, an angle should be made between the stems.

90.   Both Stems Heavy. - If both stems are heavy, and one or both are curved, and there is no angle between, no attempt should be made to sharpen or taper the ends of the curves that are toward the junction ; but the shading should be continued of uniform, heavy thickness right across from one stem to the other ; thus,—


Key : Dee-Vee, Bee-Zee, Bee-Ing, Vee-Gay, Yay-Ing, Thee-Zee, Zee-Thee, Hay-Zee, Hay-Ing.

91. Blunt Joinings. - When a straight stem is joined to a curved stem on its concave side, and at right angles to a line drawn from tip to tip of the curve, the point of junction must necessarily be somewhat rounded ; but care must be taken in the writing so that its exact location will be apparent. Examples :


Key : Chay-Ef, Jay-Ef. Jay-Vee, Tee-En, Tee-Ing, Dee-En, Dee-Ing, Pee-Ish, Pee-Shee, Bee-Ish, Bee-Shee, Kay-Ess, Kay-Zee, Gay-Ess, Gay-Zee, Ree-Way, Em-Tee, Em-Dee, Lee-Pee, Lee-Bee, Ith-Kay, Ith-Gay, Ef-Ree, Vee-Ree.

92. Chay and Ree Distinguished. - When standing alone, or only joined each with itself, Chay and Ree are distinguished by difference of slant (31). But when joined with other stems, or one with the other, these stems are distinguished by difference in the direction in which the pen moves in making them, whether down or up. as is indicated by the outline itself; and the distinction by difference of inclination need not be observed. Examples :


93. Concurrent Vowels. - When two vowels occur together between stems, they are generally separated and the first vowel written to the preceding stem, and the second vowel to the following stem, without regard to the rule at 72 (see example bayonet). Occasionally it is better to write both vowels to the same stem (see example diary). When two vowels occur together not between stems, as at the end or at the beginning of a word, both vowels must, of course, be written to one stem ; and the sign of the vowel that is heard farthest from the consonant must be placed farther away from the stem than the sign of the other vowel. See examples boa, Aello, etc., in the line below.


94. Final Unaccented "A." - Unaccented a or ah, when it occurs at the end of words and names, usually has a somewhat indefinite sound which is best written with the first-place light dot. For examples see boa, Leah, Messiah, etc., in the line above and in the next reading exercise.

Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

95.     Pop, judge, baby, gag, cake, fife, funny, mummy, pony, taffy, coke, fake, map, faith, name, many, mink, chide, manage, decay, keg, posy, peach, bony, defy, evoke, thong, pithy, type, tongue, toto, couch, tooth, gauzy, daisy, dodge, endow, baggage, mash, penny, Monday, fig, nothing, duenna, dime, chaotic, Siam, Noah, necktie.