371. The phonographic outlines of the past tense of regular verbs are generally formed from those of the first person of the present tense, in accordance with the following rules.
372. When the form for the present tense consists of or ends with a full-length stem, whether simple or hooked,— usually by halving such stem (as in writing etched, viewed, called, fined, cautioned, attached, etc.); but occasionally by simply adding to it the stem Dee, especially if the word has but one consonant-stem ; see keyed, rowed, annoyed, laid, etc.
373. When, however, the form of the present tense contains more than one stem, and the last stem cannot properly be halved, sometimes an equivalent stem that may be halved is substituted (as in writing dash, dashed ; fire, fired) ; but in most such cases the final stem is not changed, and either Tee or Dee is added to it (as in evoked, looked, bobbed, etc.).
374. When the form for the present tense consists of or ends with a half-length stem, whether simple or hooked,— by making it full length and then adding Ted or Ded (as in writing cheated, included, amounted, etc.).
375. But, in case the present-tense form ends with a hook so situated that in making the past-tense outline the final Ted or Ded cannot readily be added to it, the stem-form must be substituted for the hook, and the final Ted or Ded joined on to that (as in writing anointed grafted, etc.).
376. After the stems Tee, Dee, Way, and Yay with simple terminations, the final Ted or Ded of past-tense outlines must be detached and lapped (as in writing doubted, awaited, treated, dreaded, etc.).
377. Sometimes when the stem Way, Yay, or Hay is used in the present-tense forms, its breve-sign equivalent is used in the past-tense forms (as in writing weigh, weighed; wait, waited; heat, heated, etc.).
378. When the form for the present tense consists of or ends with a lengthened stem without final hook, - either by simply adding Dee to the present-tense outline, or by changing the double-length to a single-length stem, and then adding Tred, Dred, or Dherd, according to which is required to be added by the particular word in question (as in writing feathered, loitered, shattered, ordered, withered, etc.).
379. When the form for the present tense consists of or ends with a lengthened stem with final hook, - by changing the double-length to a half-length with the same final hook, and then adding Erd (as in writing pondered, foundered, blundered, slandered, etc.). The outline of engendered cannot be written according to the rule.
380. When the form for the present tense ends with breve-s, not written inside of a final hook or curl, - by changing the circle to a small loop (as in writing passed, used, chanced, etc.).
381. When the form for the present tense ends with breve-s, written inside of a final hook or curl, - by writing the hook or curl consonant with its stem-sign, and changing the circle to a small loop (as in writing fence, fenced; license, licensed, etc.).
382. When the form for the present tense ends with breve-sez,— by simply adding Dee to the large circle (as in writing emphasized, etc.).
383. When the form for the present tense ends with breve-est,— by changing the loop to breve-s, and then adding Ted (as in writing adjusted, assisted, etc.).
384. When the form for the present tense ends with breve-ster,— by changing the large loop to a small one, and then adding Erd or Red, whenever it is convenient to make the outline in that way ; otherwise, it is done by changing the large loop to breve-s, and then adding Tred (as in writing bolstered, pestered, mastered, etc.).
385. When the form for the present tense ends with a final curl,— by changing the curl to a half-length En (as in writing chasten, chastened; fasten, fastened, etc.).
386. Past Tense of Abbreviations. - The past-tense forms of verbs, which in the present tense are usually written with abbreviations, are given at pages 151 to 154, and should be learned as there given, because they are not always written in accordance with the foregoing rules for past-tense forms.
387. (372) Paid, ebbed, aimed, played, applied, offered, chained, rained, fined, assigned, achieved, battered, motioned, cleaned, braved, rowed, allowed, foamed, shaved, coiled, peopled, saved, waved or waived, waked, yoked, hemmed, inclined. (373) Fire, fired (-Rd), flocked, lacked, clucked, gagged. (374) Shout, shouted, include, included, prompt, prompted, bond, bonded, plant, planted, invent (375), invented. (376) Doubt, doubted, dread, dreaded. (377) Weight, weighted, heat, heated. (378) Shattered, altered, furthered, withered. (379) Pondered, rendered, wondered, blundered, slandered. (380) Raised, faced, amused, leased, forced, witnessed, pleased, addressed, bruised, chanced, glanced. (381) Fence, fenced, silence, silenced. (382) Criticised, exercised, possessed. (383) Posted, fasted, arrested, trusted. (384) Fostered, bolstered, flustered, mustered. (385) Poison, poisoned, fasten, fastened, listen, listened.