409.   "Ingly."—The termination ingly is written with the stem Ingl when it will join readily ; otherwise it is written with Ing-El. After abbreviations ingly is written with disjoined Lee ( ing being omitted). Examples:


Key. Exceedingly, touchingly, smilingly, surprisingly, discerningly, everlastingly, becomingly.

410.   "Ington."—The termination ingion may be written with either Ingt-En or Ing-Ten. In writing the outlines of Worthington and Farmington, the form Ing-Ten is preferred.

411.  Two Consecutive N-sounds. - Two consecutive n-sounds not beginning a word, are usually written with the N-hook followed by the stem En, instead of with stem En and final N-hook ( Nen ). The outlines of canon and linen are exceptions. Examples :


Key. - Pinion, genuine, genuineness, cannon, cannonade, companion, minion, Athenian, tenant, tenancy, lenient, leniency, canon linen.

412.   En-hook for stem Ing. - In the case of a few words, in which in the ordinary spelling the letter n has the sound of ng, it is allowable to use the N-hook for that sound ( ng ) instead of the stem Ing. Examples:


Key. Frank, Franklin, Lincoln, fungus, flank, thanked.

413.   Stem Ing for "ng-g."—Whenever in the common orthography the letters ng have the double sound of ng-g, as in the words


414. Signs for Initial R. - Generally at the beginning of words r is written with Ree (104, II.). But before Em and Hay with simple beginnings, initial r is written with Er (106). If, however, the Em or Hay following initial r has an initial hook, Ree is used. But, for the sake of securing shorter or easier forms, the stem Er is used for initial r in the following words and their derivatives: retire, retort, return, resume. Examples:


Key. Rumor, rehearse, retired, retorted, returned, resuming, resumption.


415.   As the consonant w at the beginning of outlines may be written in two ways, either with the stem Way or with a breve-sign, the learner might sometimes be in doubt as to which form to use, but for the fact that such outlines are so classified and arranged in a few groups that they are easily acquired.

416.   General Rule. - The following general rule covers most cases :

1.   Before a stem with simple beginning, the breve-sign, Thoid or Soid, is used ; as in writing watch, walk, wave, wing, etc.

2.   Before a stem with initial hook or circle, the stem Way is used ; as in writing waddle, waiver, wasp, etc.

417.   "W" and "Wh." - The sound of h in wh being seldom indicated in phonography, a distinction between w and wh may frequently be made by using the breve-sign for w only, and the stem Way for wh; as in writing weep, whip, wig, whig, etc.

418.   "W-l"- The three forms for w-l, Well, Weel, and Way-Lee, are used as follows :

1. Well (stem Way with L-hook) is used for wh-l; - as in writing while, whale, wheel, etc.

2.   Weel (stem Lee with W-hook) is used for w-l; - as in writing wall, wail, etc.

3.  Way-Lee is used for w-l when there is a medial and final vowel; — as in writing wiley, willow, etc.



Key. Watch, wide, walk, week, wary, wife, waive, wing; waddle, weekly, waiver, wasp, weasel ; weep, whip, worry, wherry, wig, whig, wax, whacks ; while, whale, wheel, whelp ; wall, wail, wool, wealthy ; wallow, willow, wily, Willie, wallet.

419.   "Wild." - Wild, standing alone and in most of its derivatives and compounds, is written with the half-length upstroke Weeld. But in wildly, wild-cat, wild-goose, the half-length down stroke Weld is preferred.

420.   "Wood." - The word wood, by itself, is written with Thoid-Dee (117). But as a final syllable, especially in proper names, wood is occasionally written with half-length Way (Wed). Examples: Linwood, Lidgerwood, Wedgwood, etc.

421.  Outlines ending in"tl" and "dl." - The t of final tl, in such words as chattel, title, battle, fatal, etc., is generally indicated by halving ; while the d in final dl, in such words as paddle, fiddle, bridle, etc., is usually written with the stem Dee. Exceptions: total-ly [T-Tl], shuttle [SH-Tl].

422.   Initial L before M-P or M-B, as in the outlines of lamp, limbo, lumbago, etc., is better written with El than with Lee ; thus,

298 lump.

423.   K and P sometimes Omitted. - The sounds of k after ng and p after m are sometimes so short as to be almost imperceptible; therefore, in such cases their signs may be omitted from outlines ;


424.   Perpendiculars Written Upwards. - Sometimes after a final hook the downstroke half-length Est cannot be joined ; and it is then allowable to strike it upward ; thus,300 factionist. In like manner the stem Tee may be joined at the end of the outline of affectionate by striking it upward ; and in writing affectionately, the stem Lee may be joined at the top of the Tee. The stenotypes of these exceptional upstrokes are St and T. Upward Tee occurs only in this one instance. But upward Est is used in writing quite a number of words, among which are the following : Emancipationist, elocutionist, fashionist, fusionist, perfectionist, annexationist, extortionist, etc.