395.   Initials of Proper Names. - In the foregoing List the first phonographic character under each letter is the sign for that letter when used as the initial of a proper name. See the signs opposite the initials A., B., C., etc. A short tick may be struck across any shaded consonant-sign, used as an initial, to make sure that it will not be mistaken for the corresponding light sign. See B. and P., G. and K., H. and M., Y. and L., etc.

396.   This tick across shaded stems may be used to distinguish such words as got, get, bags, etc., from the respective conflicting words caught, cut or come, box or boxes, etc.

397.   In using the phonographic initials, no attention is paid to the sound of the first letter of a name. Thus, the sign at A. (a heavy dot) is the initial of Arthur (a), Agnes (a), Austin (a), and Amos (a) ; the sign at C. (or, if preferred, a small longhand c may be used instead) is the initial of Clara (k), Christopher (k), Charles (ch), and Cyrus (s); the sign at G. is the initial of George (j) and Garret (g hard); the stem Pee is the initial of both Philip (f) and Paul (p); the stem Tee is the initial of Theodore (th), Thomas (t), and Titus (t). The stems Chay, Ith, and Ish are never used for initials, and Yay only for Y., not for U., which see in the List.

398.  Words Written out of Position. - Each of the following words of the List is written out of the position it would occupy if written according to the rule at 82, in order to avoid conflict with the word or words placed after it in parentheses : Advantage (large, age) ; almost (most); already (well) ; altogether (again) ; another (no-other); any (no) ; do (did) ; equality (quality); for (after, of-their when written Vether1); found (find); gentleman (gentlemen); go (come) ; he, him (me); held (hold); of (I, have) ; there, their (at-all); other (there, their); over (very); own (know); send (sent) ; truth (true) ; were, where (are) ; which (each).

399.   "Company." - Standing alone company is written in full; but in phrases it is generally contracted to the stem Kay. Example in List: - Insurance company.

400.   "Cover." - When standing alone or beginning a word cover should be written in full. But when other syllables precede, it may be contracted to Kev. Examples:


401.   "Dollar." - When used generally, that is, not in connection with numbers denoting sums of money, dollar is written in full.

402.   "People," when used as a verb, is written in full.

403.   "Will." - As an auxiliary verb will is written with the abbreviation Lee or with the El-hook. As an ordinary verb, or as a noun, it is generally written with the sign Weel; but sometimes with Lee. The following sentence illustrates in part the meaning of the rule : " By his will (Weel) he will (Lee) certainly will (Weel) his estate to his son."

404.   Ing-Ish for unguish " and "nquish." - The terminations nguish and nquish may both be written with Ing-Ish. Examples:


Key. Languish, distinguish, extinguish, relinquish, languished, relinquishes. See abbreviation for distinguishing in List.

405. Words ending in "ntial-ly " and "ficial-ly."—The outlines of words ending in ntial-ly and ficial-ly may be abbreviated as follows:

1.   Terminate substantial-ly, circumstantial-ly, consequential-ly, and inferential-ly with the En-hook.

2.   Terminate other words ending in nlial-ly with the stem Ish.

3.   Terminate words ending in ficial-ly with the stem Shee ; except that official-ly and judicial-ly are usually written in full.



Key. Substantial-ly, circumstantial-ly, consequential-ly, inferen-tial-ly, presidential, credential, prudential, essential-ly, penitential, reverential. Artificial-ly, superficial-ly, official, officially, judicial, judicially.

406.   "Ly" added to Abbreviations. - The syllable ly is usually added to abbreviations with the stem Lee, which is sometimes joined and sometimes disjoined. Examples :


Key. (joined) Consequently, correctly, extraordinarily, firstly, immediately, particularly, popularly, uniformly, worldly, yearly ; (disjoined) accordingly, differently, distinctly, frequently, intelligently, peculiarly, publicly, regularly, repugnantly, significantly, similarly.

407.   Omission of Hooks. - There are a few words from whose outlines hooks may be omitted, thereby shortening them considerably, and yet not impairing their legibility. Examples :


Key. Identical, atonement, assignment, consignment, spendthrift, adjournment, landlord.

408.   "Uation."— Breve-yay ( Noid ) and the Shun-hook may be blended together, to represent the termination uation, in such words as valuation, insinuation, etc., in the manner shown in the following examples. Its stenotype is " shun."